CHAPTER FIVE Hors D’oeuvres

Hors D'oeuvres

EGG

1. Egg mayonnaise

2. Stuffed eggs

FISH

3. Anchovy fillets

4. Anchovy fillets rolled

5. Caviare

6. Crab, dressed

7. Fish mayonnaise

8. Fish pate

9. Lobster, prawn or shrimp cocktail

10. Lobster mayonnaise

11. Mackerel Portugaise

12. Oysters

13. Herrings, pickled

14. Sardines

15. Smoked fish

16. Soft roes

FRUIT

17. Avocado

18. Florida cocktail

19. Grapefruit

20. Grapefruit cocktail

21. Melon

22. Melon cocktail

MEAT

23. Liver pate

24. Smoked meat

VEGETABLES

25. Cucumber and pimento

26. Gherkins

27. Globe artichoke

28. Grecian style

29. Olives

30. Portuguese style

31. Tomatoes Americaine

INTRODUCTION 

1. Hors d'oeuvre may be made from a wide variety of fish, meats or marinaded vegetables and salad items. Almost all foodstuffs can be utilised in making hors d'oeuvres, but each item should be seasoned and flavoured according to its nature. The aim is to serve a minimum of six varieties, all of which have contrasting flavours and colours and are stimulating to the palate. Hors d'oeuvres are served as a first course, normally at a lunch meal. The more expensive categories of food such as smoked salmon, caviare, melon, oysters, smoked ham, may be included as part of the hors d'oeuvres or may be served on their own in place of hors d'oeuvres at either lunch or dinner. Presentation is an all important factor second only to the flavour in the making of hors d'oeuvres.

2. Whilst a neat and clean appearance is necessary, it is a mistake to over decorate. Hors d'oeuvre should be served sparingly to stimulate the appetite rather than to satisfy hunger. A simple set of hors d'oeuvres might consist of the following:

a. Egg Mayonnaise.

b. Tomato Salad.

c. Sardines or Anchovies

d. Cooked Vegetable Salad.

e. Potato Salad.

f. Fish Salad or Mayonnaise.

g. Raw Vegetable Salad, endive, pimento, celery, etc.

h. Meat Salad, beef, salami, liver pate etc.

EGG

1. EGG MAYONNAISE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Eggs 5

Mayonnaise 125 ml

Lettuce (half a head)

Vinaigrette 10 ml

Paprika

Method

1. Hard boil the eggs, cool and remove the shells.

2. Wash, dry and shred the lettuce and place it in an hors d'oeuvre dish. Season with vinaigrette.

3. Slice or cut the eggs in half and arrange on a bed of lettuce.

4. Mask the eggs with mayonnaise.

5. Decorate with paprika.

2. STUFFED EGGS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Eggs 5

Pimentoes 15 g

Butter 50 g

Capers 20

Mustard 1 punnet

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Hard boil the eggs, cool and remove the shells. Cut a thin slice off each end of each egg.

2. Cut the eggs in half using a pointed knife and leaving a serrated edge. Remove the yolks and pass them through a sieve into a china basin.

3. Add the butter, salt and pepper and mix thoroughly.

4. Place the halves of egg white on an hors d'oeuvre dish and fill the centre with the yolk of egg mixture using a piping bag with a star tube.

5. Place a caper and a piece of pimento on top of each egg and serve garnished with mustard and cress.

FISH

3. ANCHOVY FILLETS

1O PORTIONS

Ingredients

Anchovy fillets 20

Egg 1

Capers 10 g

Parsley (chopped)

Salad oil

Method

1. a. If the anchovies are pickled in brine, wash them carefully and drain on a cloth. Wipe them to remove the skin, and take out the backbone. Trim the fillets, cut into strips and sprinkle with a few drops of salad oil.

b. If the anchovies are filleted remove from the tin or jar and drain off the surplus oil. Cut the fillets into thin strips.

2. Arrange the strips of anchovy on hors d'oeuvre dishes to form a diamond trellis pattern. Place a caper in the centre of each diamond.

3. Hard boil eggs, cool and remove the shell. Pass the white and yolk through a sieve keeping the white separate from the yolk.

4. Decorate the edge of each dish with a border of yolk of egg, white of egg and chopped parsley.

5. Sprinkle a few drops of oil over the fillets of anchovy and serve.

4. ANCHOVY FILLETS ROLLED

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Anchovy fillets 30

Egg 1

Capers 10 g

Parsley (chopped)

Salad oil

Method

1. Roll up each anchovy fillet and arrange them in hors d'oeuvre dishes.

2. Place a caper in the centre of each fillet.

3. Hard boil the egg, cool and remove the shell. Pass the white and yolk through a sieve keeping the white separate from the yolk.

4. Decorate the edges of each dish with a border of yolk of egg, white of egg and chopped parsley.

5. Sprinkle a few drops of oil over the fillets of anchovy and serve.

5. CAVIAR

Caviar is purchased ready for serving in tins or earthenware jars. It should be stored at a low temperature, but not frozen.

Serve in the original container on crushed ice, with quarters of lemon, melba toast or brown bread and butter served separately.

About 25 g constitutes a portion. Caviar is very expensive, but there are available, a number of substitutes closely resembling caviar such as lumpfish roe which are less expensive.

6. DRESSED CRAB

8 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Crab 1 kg

Brown breadcrumbs 25 g

Mayonnaise 125 ml

Egg 1

Vinaigrette 25 ml

Parsley (chopped)

Worcestershire sauce

Method

1. If live, boil the crab in salt water for 20 minutes.

2. Allow to cool in the stock.

3. Remove the legs and claws, crack them open and remove the flesh. This is called the "white meat".

4. Remove the tail and the undershell, it will break away neatly at a natural line near the edge of the shell. Remove the gills, and the intestines and stomach bag found near to the head. Scoop out all the contents of the shell. This part remaining is called the "dark meat".

5. Wash the shell thoroughly.

6. Chop the dark meat and pass it through a sieve, into a basin, add the breadcrumbs and stir in 25 ml of mayonnaise and a dash of Worcestershire sauce.

7. Place the white meat in a basin and lightly break it up with a fork, season with salt and sprinkle the vinaigrette. Place the dark meat in the centre of the shell and arrange the white meat on either side.

8. Hard boil the egg, allow to cool and remove the shell.

9. Pass the yolk and white of the egg through a sieve separately. Decorate the dark meat with the sieved egg and chopped parsley.

10. Serve with the remainder of the mayonnaise separately.

7. FISH MAYONNAISE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

White fish 200 g

Lettuce (half a head)

Vinaigrette 25 ml

Mayonnaise 125 ml

Anchovy fillets 3

Olives 2

Gherkins 2

Egg 1

Tomatoes 2

Method

1. Poach and flake the fish; place on a dish, sprinkle with the dressing and allow to soak.

2. Wash, dry and shred the lettuce, place it in an hors d'oeuvre dish and season with vinaigrette. Place the flaked dish on the lettuce.

3. Mask with mayonnaise and decorate with a trellis of strips of anchovy fillets, fans of gherkins, stoned olives, hard boiled egg and sections of skinned tomatoes cut into wedges.

8. FISH PATE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Smoked fish 250 g

Butter 250 g

Black Pepper

Method

1. Remove the skin and bones from the fish.

2. Pound the flesh in a mortar or mince it and then pass it through a sieve.

3. Soften the butter and mix it with the fish.

4. Season with finely ground black pepper and divide between ramekins.

5. Serve with hot toast.

Note: Smoked mackerel, smoked trout, smoked salmon or kipper fillets can be used.

9. LOBSTER, PRAWN OR SHRIMP COCKTAIL

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Cooked lobster, prawns or shrimps 300 g

Cocktail sauce 250 ml

Lettuce (half a head)

Method

1. Wash, dry and finely shred the lettuce.

2. Arrange a small quantity in each glass.

3. If lobster is used cut it into 5 mm dice. prawns and shrimps are left whole.

4. Place the shellfish in the glasses on top of the lettuce.

5. Mask over with the sauce.

Note: Wine, champagne or coupe glasses may be used for the service of this dish. Decorate the side of the glass with a prawn or shrimp.

10. LOBSTER MAYONNAISE

8 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Cooked lobster meat 200 g

Eggs 2

Vinaigrette 25 ml

Mayonnaise 100 ml

Lettuce 1

Tomatoes 2

Capers 8

Anchovy fillets 2

Gherkins 4

Method

1. Wash, dry and finely shred the lettuce, place it in an hors d'oeuvre dish. Season with vinaigrette.

2. Peel the tomatoes and cut them into wedges.

3. Cut the lobster meat into neat scallops. Arrange on top of lettuce and mask with mayonnaise.

4. Decorate with strips of anchovy fillets, capers, fans of gherkins, wedges of hard boiled eggs and skimmed tomatoes.

11. MACKEREL PORTUGAISE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Fillets of mackerel 5

Tomatoes 100 g

Tomato puree 10 g

Oil 25 g

Onions 25 g

Bouquet garni 1 small

Vinegar 75 g

Olives stoned 4

Garlic

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel the onions and cut the flesh into fine dice. Place into a buttered dish.

2. Blanch and skin the tomatoes, cut in half, remove the seeds and cut the flesh into fine dice.

3. Cut each fillet diagonally into four pieces and arrange on the chopped onion.

4. Add the diced tomatoes, bouquet garni, garlic, seasoning and the olives sliced lengthways.

5. Mix the vinegar, tomato puree and oil together and pour over the fish.

6. Cover with greaseproof paper and cook in an oven at 180oC.

7. Serve cold in an hors d'oeuvre dish allowing two pieces of fish per person.

12. OYSTERS

Method

1. Scrub thoroughly and drain. Do not store in water.

2. Place the oyster in a cloth and hold it in the palm of the hand, flat shell uppermost. Insert the oyster knife into the hinge and lever upwards to avoid damaging the oyster. If an oyster is already open it should be discarded as the oyster is dead.

3. Remove the flat shell and loosen the oyster in the bottom shell by passing the knife underneath. Reserve the natural juice with its delicious flavour and serve in the half shell accompanied by lemon wedges, cayenne pepper, tabasco sauce and brown bread and butter all served separately.

4. The minimum portion of oysters is 6 per person.


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13. PICKLED HERRINGS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Fresh herrings 5

Small chillies 10

Bay leaf 1

White peppercorns 12

Onions 50 g

Allspice 6

White vinegar 75 ml

Water 75 ml

Method 

1. Scale, wash and fillet the herrings.

2. Wash thoroughly in running water to bleach them.

3. Drain and roll up each fillet with the skin on the outside enclosing a thin slice of onion and a chilli in each.

4. Arrange the rolled fillets in a glass jar and in between the layers put thin slices of onion and the peppercorns and all spice.

5. Cover with the white vinegar and water and add the bay leaf.

6. Allow to pickle for 7 days in a refrigerator or cold room.

7. For service slice the roll mop into three and arrange in an hors d'oeuvre dish with a little of the liquor.

14. SARDINES

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Tinned sardines in oil 10

Parsley

Method

1. Open the tine of sardines drain off most of the oil and arrange the whole sardines neatly in an hors d'oeuvre dish.

2. Garnish with sprigs of parsley.

15. SMOKED FISH

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Smoked fish (trout or mackerel) 400 g

Lettuce 1

Lemon 1

horseradish sauce 75 ml

Brown bread 10 slices

Butter 75 g

Method

1. Skin the fish and remove all the bones. Cut the fillet into even sized pieces.

2. Wash and dry the lettuce and arrange the leaves in an hors d'oeuvre dish. Arrange the fish on the lettuce with slices of lemon.

3. Serve with horseradish sauce and brown bread and butter.

16. SOFT ROES

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Soft roes 5

Oil 20 ml

Vinaigrette 25 ml

Lettuce (half a head)

Parsley

Salt

Pepper

Flour

Method

1. Pass the roes through seasoned flour then shallow fry them in hot oil, drain and allow to cool.

2. Slice the roes and season with the vinaigrette.

3. Wash the lettuce, arrange the leaves in an hors d'oeuvre dish.

4. Lay the slices roes on the lettuce and garnish with sprigs of parsley.

FRUIT

17. AVOCADO PEARS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Ripe avocado pears

Oil and lemon juice

Method

1. Peel and halve the pears and remove the stone.

2. Sprinkle with the lemon juice and oil.

Notes:

1. The pears may be further seasoned by the addition of Worcestershire sauce.

2. Peeled shrimps may be added and served with the pears.

3. Avocados should be prepared immediately before presentation and with a stainless steel knife to minimise discoloration.

18. FLORIDA COCKTAIL

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Grapefruit 5

Oranges 5

Castor sugar 50 g

Maraschino or kirsch 25 ml

Cocktail cherries 10

Method

1. Remove the rind and pith of the grapefruit and oranges with a sharp knife. cut into segments discarding the seeds.

2. Place the segments in a bowl, sprinkle with sugar and liqueur if desired.

3. Chill and serve in coupe glasses. Top each with a cocktail cherry.

19. GRAPEFRUIT

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Grapefruit 5

Castor sugar 50 g

Cocktail cherries 10

Method

1. Cut the grapefruit across into halves.

2. Remove the centre stalk with a stainless steel grapefruit knife.

3. Cut between each section of the fruit with a circular motion taking care not to sever the segment sections.

4. Sprinkle a little castor sugar on the top and place a cherry in the centre of each half.

5. Chill and serve in a coupe or sundae glass.

20. GRAPEFRUIT COCKTAIL

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Grapefruit 5

Castor sugar 50 g

Cocktail cherries 10

Maraschino or kirsch 25 ml

Method

1. Remove the rind and pith of the grapefruit with a sharp knife. Cut into segments discarding the seeds.

2. Place the segments in a bowl, sprinkle with sugar and liqueur if desired.

3. Chill and serve in sundae glasses. Top each with a cherry.

21. MELON

Method

1. Chill the melon thoroughly.

2. cut through the centre and remove the seeds.

3. Cut into sections in the shape of crescents.

4. Serve on crushed ice with castor sugar and ground ginger separately.

Note: The melon varieties available and the portions they yield are as follows:

Cantaloup 6 portions approximately

Honeydew 6 portions approximately

Charentais 2 portions cut in half across

Ogen 2 portions cut in half across

22. MELON COCKTAIL

8 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Canteloup or honeydew 2

Castor sugar 25 g

Method

1. Cut the melons in half and remove the seeds.

2. Separate the flesh from the skin of the melon.

3. Cut into 15 mm dice or scoop out with a parisienne cutter.

4. Dust with castor sugar and liqueur if desired. Chill and serve in coupes.


MEAT

23. LIVER PATE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Chicken livers 200 g

Belly of pork 200 g

Larding fat 200 g

Fresh cream or evaporated milk 75 ml

Sherry 75 ml

Oil

Salt

Pepper

Garlic 1 clove

Method

1. Cut the pork into 2 cm dice and shallow fry it in a little hot oil with the chicken livers and garlic then mince through a coarse plate, then through a fine plate

2. Pass the mince through a sieve add the seasoning and mix in the cream and sherry.

3. Line an earthenware dish with thin slices of larding fat put in the mixture and cover the top with more larding fat.

4. Place the dish into a backing tray half filled with boiling water and cook in an oven at 180oC for two hours.

5. When the pare is cooked press down the top with a weight and leave until cold then refrigerate.

6. Cut into slices and serve with melba toast.

Notes:

1. Chopped truffle may be added to this mix.

2. Instead of passing through a sieve, a liquidizer or Robo chef may be used.

3. If a coarser finished pate is desired do not pass through a sieve.

24. SMOKED MEATS

1. Usually purchased vacuum packed.

2. To serve cut into thin slices arrange on a bed of lettuce in an hors d'oeuvre dish with a suitable garnish.

VEGETABLES

25. CUCUMBER AND PIMENTO

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Cucumber 1

Pimento (tinned) 50 g

Vinaigrette 10 ml

Method

1. Peel the cucumber and cut into slices.

2. Place in an hors d'oeuvre dish with the slices overlapping.

3. Decorate with strips of pimento and moisten with vinaigrette.

26. GHERKINS

1. Normally purchased in jars already pickled.

2. Serve in an hors d'oeuvre dish with a little of their own liquor.

27. GLOBE ARTICHOKES

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Artichokes 10

Blanc

Lemons 2

Method

1. Use only very young and fresh artichokes. Trim off the staff at the base. Using a small strong knife or scissors trim the tops of the leaves.

2. Place a slice of lemon at the base of each and tie in place with string.

3. Simmer in the blanc or well acidulated salt water until the base is tender about 20 minutes.

4. Refresh under running cold water until quite cold. Remove the strings and the lemon. Remove the core carefully from the centre and leave it clean. Replace the centre on top of the leaves.

5. Reheat in boiling salted water for 3 to 4 minutes. Drain thoroughly.

6. Serve in a napkin or a dish accompanied by hollandaise sauce or melted butter.

28. VEGETABLES GRECIAN STYLE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Vegetables 250 g

Water 125 ml

Oil 60 ml

Lemon 1

Peppercorns 4

Coriander seed 4

Bouquet garni 1 small

Salt

Method

1. Blanch the vegetables in boiling salted water, refresh and drain.

2. Place the water, oil, lemon juice, peppercorns, coriander seeds and bouquet garni in a saucepan and bring to the boil.

3. Put in the vegetables, adjust the seasoning cover with a lid and simmer until tender.

4. Allow to cool and serve in an hors d'oeuvre dish.

Note: Any of the following vegetables can be used: artichokes, button onions and cauliflower.

29. OLIVES

1. Normally purchased in bottles or jars.

2. They should be drained, stoned and served in an hors d'oeuvre dish.

30. VEGETABLES PORTUGUESE STYLE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Vegetables 250 g

Onions 25 g

Oil 60 ml

Tomatoes 100 g

Tomato puree 10 g

Vinegar 125 ml

Bouquet garni 1 small

Parsley (chopped)

Salt

Method

1. Blanch the vegetables in boiling salted water, refresh and drain.

2. Peel the onions and cut them into fine dice.

3. Blanch and peel the tomatoes, remove the seeds and cut the flesh into small dice.

4. Shallow fry the onions in the oil without colouring until almost cooked.

5. Put all the ingredients, except the parsley into a sauce-pan, cover with a lid and simmer until they are tender then allow to cool and put into an hors d'oeuvre dish.

6. Serve decorated with chopped parsley.

Note Any of the following vegetables can be used: aubergines, button onions, cauliflower, celery and courgettes.

31. TOMATOES AMERICAINE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Tomatoes 400 g

Parsley (chopped)

Onion 25 g

Vinaigrette 25 ml

Method

1. Remove the cores then blanch, refresh and peel the tomatoes. Peel the onions and cut the flesh into fine dice.

2. Cut the tomatoes into thin slices and arrange in hors d'oeuvres dishes.

3. Decorate with the onion then sprinkle with vinaigrette and allow to stand for one hour.

4. Decorate with chopped parsley before serving.