CHAPTER FOUR Sauces

The Art of the Sauce

BROWN

1. Brown

2. Demi glace

3. Bordelaise

4. Robert

5. Charcutiere

6. Chasseur

7. Devilled

8. Jaeger

9. Madeira

10. Onion

11. Orange

12. Piquante

13. Poivrade

14. Reform

BUTTER

15. Bearnaise

16. Choron

17. Foyot

18. Hollandaise

19. Maltaise

20. Mousseline

21. Paloise

COLD

22. Andalouse

23. Cocktail

24. Cumberland

25. Green sauce

26. Mayonnaise

27. Remoulade

28. Tartare

DRESSINGS

29. Acidulated cream

30. French

31. Lemon and Honey

32. Vinaigrette

33. Yoghurt

VELOUTES

34. Americaine

35. Caper

36. Chicken

37. Fish

38. Mushroom

39. Nantua

40. Shrimp

41. Supreme

42. White wine

43. Zigeuner

WHITE

44. White

45. Cheese

46. Mornay

47. Cream

48. Egg

49. Mustard

50. Onion

51. Parsley

UNCLASSIFIED

52. Apple

53. Barbecue

54. Bread

55. Chaud-froid (brown)

56. Chaud-froid (white)

57. Cranberry

58. Curry

59. Horseradish

60. Jus lie

61. Mint

62. Portugaise

63. Roast gravy

64. Tomato

INTRODUCTION

1. A sauce is a flavoured liquid usually thickened, which served to impart richness and flavour to food that otherwise might lack flavour on its own. Sauces are also used to counteract richness in certain foods and in addition to enhancing a dish they may also aid digestion.

2. The preparation of sauces is a skilled task requiring care and experience. Sauces are important to good cooking but are often neglected. The ability to produce tasty sauces is a vital part of achieving a good standard of cookery.

3. A sauce, if thickened, must be smooth, have a shine and a definite, but not overpowering taste. The texture must be light and not too thick. As a guide sauces should lightly coat the back of a spoon. This is the chefs traditional rule of thumb for a good sauce. However, to suit certain dishes, for example in cauliflower mornay, the sauce can be made thicker to adequately coat the cauliflower.

BASIC SAUCES

4. There are several sauces from which, in classical cookery, hundreds of other sauces can be created. Such sauces are referred to as "derivative sauces". Some examples are:

Sauce Derivative

  • White Sauce - Cheese Sauce
  • Egg Sauce
  • Veloute - Mushroom
  • Brown Sauce - Demi Glace
  • Demi-Glace - Bordelaise Sauce
  • Charcutiere Sauce
  • Hollandaise Sauce - Bernaise Sauce
  • Choron Sauce
  • Mayonnaise Sauce - Cocktail Sauce
  • Andalouse Sauce

Sauces Without Derivatives

5. A few sauces do not lend themselves to having derivatives. For example apple sauce and bread sauce.

LAST MINUTE ADDITIVES

6. To improve a sauces consistency. flavour, texture and appearance certain ingredients can be added immediately prior to serving. Some examples are:

a. Liaison of egg yolks and cream: For thickening a sauce once added do not reboil the sauce or it will curdle.

b. Sabayon of egg yolks: helps to achieve a good glaze or sheen for dishes finished under a grill. Do not reboil after the addition of a sabayon.

c. Chopped beef marrow: Sauce Bordelaise. Again do not reboil after adding the marrow to the sauce.

d. Cream: Withstands temperatures up to boiling point.

e. Butter: The technique of adding butter to a sauce is known as "monte au beurre" or mounting the sauce with butter. Again do not reboil after adding the butter.

CARE AFTER PRODUCTION

7. After a sauce has been made, care must be taken to prevent a skin forming. This may be achieved by providing a tight fitting cover or cartouche.

BROWN SAUCES

1. BROWN SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Oil                                                                           50 g

Flour browned                                                     60 g

Tomato puree                                                       25 g

Brown stock                                                         1 ltr

Onion                                                                   100 g

Carrots                                                                 100g

Bacon trimming                                                   50 g

Bouquet garni                                                      1

Black peppercorns                                              4

Method

1. Make a brown roux and cool if slightly.

2. Add the tomato puree.

3 Bring the stock to the boil and add it gradually to the roux stirring constantly.

4. Peel and dice the vegetables and bacon trimmings and fry them together. Drain and add to the sauce.

5. Simmer for 2 hours, skimming from time to time to remove any fat or scum, then strain and reboil.

2. DEMI GLACE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Brown sauce                                                        500 ml

Brown stock                                                         500 ml

Method

1. Place the stock and sauce in a saucepan, bring to the boil and reduce by half, skimming when necessary.

2. Pass through muslin.

3. BORDELAISE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Demi-glace                                                         500 ml

Shallots                                                                50 g

Red wine                                                             250 ml

Mignonette pepper                                           pinch

Thyme                                                                 1 sprig

Bayleaf                                                                 1 small

Beef marrow                                                        100 g

Lemon juice

Meat glaze                                                            40 ml

Method

1. Poach the beef marrow.

2. Peel the shallots and cut them into fine dice. Put them into a saucepan with the pepper, thyme, bayleaf and red wine, bring to the boil and reduce by a third.

3. Add the demi-glace and simmer for 30 minutes.

4. Strain through a muslin cloth.

5. Reboil and add the lemon juice, the meat glaze and the beef marrow finely chopped.

6. Adjust the seasoning and consistency.

4. ROBERT SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Butter                                                                   25 g

Onions                                                                 100 g

White wine                                                          125 ml

Demi glace                                                         500 ml

English mustard                                                10 g

Sugar                                                                    5 g

Meat glaze                                                          25 ml

Method 

1. Melt the butter is a saucepan.

2. Peel the onions and cut them into fine dice and cook them in the butter without colouring.

3. Add the wine and reduce by two thirds. Add the demi-glace and simmer for a further 15 minutes.

4. Add the sugar, the meat glaze and the diluted mustard; do not reboil.

5. Skim; adjust the consistency and seasoning.

5. CHARCUTIERE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Robert sauce                                                        500 ml

Gherkins                                                                 25 g

Method

1. Cut the gherkins into julienne or fine dice.

2. Add to the Robert sauce just before serving.

Note: This sauce is served with grilled or fried meat, usually pork.

6. CHASSEUR SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Button mushrooms                                              150 g

Butter                                                                      50 g

Shallots                                                                   25 g

Demi glace                                                           500 ml

Tomato                                                                   150 g

Parsley                                                                      5 g

Tarragon                                                                  5 g

Dry white wine                                                    125 ml

Method

1. Slice the mushrooms, peel and roughly chop the shallots and cut the tomatoes into concasse.

2. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the chopped shallots and cook them for 3 minutes without colouring.

3. Add the sliced mushrooms, cover with a lid, cook for a further 3 minutes.

4. Strain off any excess fat, add the white wine and reduce by half.

5. Add the concasse of tomato and demi glace and simmer for 10 minutes.

6. Adjust the seasoning and consistency and add the chopped parsley and tarragon.

Notes:

1. This sauce is usually served with fried steaks, chops and rosettes etc.

2. It is also used for chicken dishes, eg "Chicken saute chasseur", in which case substitute jus lie for demi-glace.

7. DEVILLED SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Shallots or Onions                                               100 g

White wine                                                           25 ml

Vinegar                                                                  25 ml

Mignonette pepper                                               5 g

Demi-glace                                                           500 ml

Cayenne pepper

Method

1. Peel the shallots/onions and cut them into fine dice then out them in a saucepan with the wine, vinegar and mignonette pepper and reduce by half.

2. Add the demi-glace and simmer for 10 minutes.

3. Season with cayenne pepper.

4. Pass through a fine strainer and adjust the consistency and seasoning.

Note: This sauce is usually served with grilled or fried fish.

8. JAEGER SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Mushrooms                                                          700 g

Onions                                                                  200 g

Butter                                                                     50 g

Demi-glace                                                           500 ml

Red wine                                                                500 ml

Sugar                                                                        50 g

Method

1. Peel the onions and then cut them into fine dice, slice the mushrooms and saute both in the butter until tender.

2. Add the red wine and reduce by one third.

3. Add the demi-glace, bring to the boil and simmer for 15 minutes.

4. Adjust the seasoning and consistency.

Notes:

1. For a lighter sauce , substitute the demi-glace with thinned chicken veloute.

2. This sauce is usually served with pork or veal schnitzels.

9. MADEIRA SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Demi-glace                                                           500 ml

Madeira wine                                                       125 ml

Butter                                                                      50 g

Method

1. Reduce the demi-glace by a quarter

2. Remove it from the stove and add the wine.

3. Adjust the consistency and the seasoning.

4. Add the butter.

5.. Strain through a muslin cloth, keep hot but do not reboil.

Note: This sauce is served with meat dishes.

10. BROWN ONION SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Onions                                                                 100 g

Oil                                                                         15 ml

Vinegar                                                                50 ml

Demi-glace                                                        500 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel and shred the onions.

2. Fry them in the oil until golden brown.

3. Add the vinegar, boil and reduce by half.

4. Adjust the consistency and seasoning.

Note This sauce is served with meat dishes.

11. ORANGE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Oranges                                                                4

Lemons                                                                2

Sugar                                                                    50 g

Vinegar                                                                25 ml

Jus lie                                                                   500 ml

Method

1. Remove the zest from the oranges.

2. Cut the zest into julienne.

3. Blanch the zest in boiling water for 4 minutes, then refresh.

4. Make a caramel with the vinegar and sugar.

5. Add the juice of the oranges and lemons and reduce by half.

6. Add the jus lie and reboil.

7. Adjust the consistency and seasoning.

8. Strain through muslin and add the blanched zest of orange.

9. Cover until required for service.

12. PIQUANT SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Vinegar                                                                 50 ml

Onions/shallots                                                    50 g

Demi-glace                                                           500 ml

Gherkins                                                                 50 g

Chervil                                                                      5 g

Tarragon                                                                   5 g

Parsley (chopped)

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel the shallots/onions and cut them into fine dice then put them in a saucepan with the vinegar. Bring to the boil and reduce by half.

2. Add the demi-glace and simmer for twenty minutes.

3. Add the finely chopped chervil, tarragon and parsley.

4. Skim, adjust the seasoning and consistency.

Note: This sauce is served with made-up meat dishes.

The Art of the Sauce

13. POIVRADE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients:

Carrots                                                                  100 g

Onions                                                                   100 g

Celery                                                                    100 g

Bay leaf                                                                  1

Thyme                                                                   1

Butter                                                                    25 g

White wine                                                          50 ml

Vinegar                                                                50 ml

Demi-glace                                                       500 ml

Method

1. Peel the carrots, onions and celery and cut them into mirepoix.

2. Heat the butter in a pan and fry the mirepoix with the bay leaf and thyme.

3. Pour off the surplus butter, add the wine and vinegar and reduce by half.

4. Add the demi-glace, simmer for 25 minutes and then strain.

5. Pass through muslin cloth and adjust the consistency and seasoning.

Note: This sauce is usually served with venison.

14. REFORM SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients:

Oil                                                                        15 ml

Onions                                                                  25 g

Peppercorns                                                          10

Bay Leaf                                                               5 g

Vinegar                                                                 50 ml

Redcurrant jelly                                                  50 g

Demi-glace                                                       500 ml

Cooked beetroot                                               50 g

Eggs                                                                      2

Gherkins                                                               50 g

Cooked mushrooms                                           50 g

Cooked tongue                                                    50 g

Salt

Method

1. Peel the onions and cut them into fine dice then fry them in oil until lightly coloured.

2. Add the crushed peppercorns, bay leaf and vinegar and reduce by half.

3. Add the redcurrant jelly and demi glace and simmer 10 minutes.

4. Strain, adjust the consistency and seasoning.

5. Add the cooked beetroot, egg white, tongue, gherkins and mushrooms cut into julienne, to the sauce and re-heat.

Note: This sauce is served with lamb cutlets.

BUTTER SAUCES

15. BEARNAISE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients:

Shallots                                                                 50 g

Peppercorns                                                          12

Fresh tarragon                                                    10g

Tarragon vinegar                                              25 ml

Cold water                                                         40 ml

Egg yolks                                                               10

Butter                                                                    400 g

Salt

Pepper

Chervil                                                                  10 g

Method

1. Peel the shallots and cut them into fine dice and crush the peppercorns. Place them in a non aluminium saucepan, add the tarragon stalks and tarragon vinegar. Bring to the boil, remove from the heat, cover and allow to infuse.

2. When the infusion has cooled, add the water and egg yolks.

3. Return to a low heat, whisking constantly until cooked to a sabayon.

4. Remove from the stove, allow to cool slightly and gradually whisk in all the butter.

5. Season and pass through a double thickness of muslin.

6. Add the finely chopped tarragon and chervil leaves.

Notes:

1. This sauce should be kept at blood heat or it may curdle.

2. A stainless steel hand bowl is a suitable utensil for this sauce.

3. This sauce is served with grilled fish or meat dishes.

16. CHORON SAUCE

625 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Bearnaise sauce 500 ml

Tomato puree 125 ml

Method

Add the tomato puree to the bearnaise sauce and mix thoroughly.

Note This sauce is served with grilled fish or meat dishes.

17. FOYOT SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Bearnaise sauce                                                         500 ml

Meat glaze                                                                    25 ml

Method

Add the meat glaze to the bearnaise sauce and mix thoroughly.

18. HOLLANDAISE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White peppercorns                                                    8

Vinegar                                                                     25 ml

Water                                                                        25 ml

Butter                                                                        500 g

Egg yolks                                                                  4

Salt

Cayenne pepper

Method

1. Crush the peppercorns and place them in a non-aluminium saucepan, add the vinegar and reduce by three quarters.

2. Remove from the heat and add the water.

3. Add the yolks to the reduction and whisk over a low heat until the mixture attains the consistency of cream.

4. Gradually whisk in the butter, season and pass through a muslin cloth.

5. Keep warm for service.

Notes:

1.This sauce should be kept at blood heat or it may curdle.

2. Stainless steel hand bowl is a suitable utensil for this sauce.

3. This sauce is served with grilled fish or meat dishes.

19. MALTAISE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Hollandaise sauce                                                     500 ml

Blood oranges                                                           2

Method

1. Grate the zest from the oranges, squeeze out the juice.

2. Mix the zest and juice of oranges with hollandaise sauce.

Note: Serve with asparagus.

20. MOUSSELINE SAUCE

750 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Hollandaise sauce                                                     500 ml

Double cream                                                            250 ml

Method

1. Lightly whip the cream

2. Add the cream to the hollandaise and mix thoroughly.

Note: This sauce is served with hot fish or vegetable dishes.

21. PALOISE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Shallots                                                                     50 g

Peppercorns                                                              2

Fresh mint                                                                 10 g

Vinegar                                                                     25 ml

Cold water                                                                40 ml

Egg yolks                                                                     10

Butter                                                                        400 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel the shallots and cut them into fine dice and crush the peppercorns. Place them in a non aluminium saucepan and add the vinegar. Bring to the boil, cover and allow to infuse.

2. Allow to cool, add the water and egg yolks.

3. Return to a low heat, whisking constantly until cooked to a sabayon.

4. Remove from the heat and allow to cool slightly then gradually whisk in the butter, season and pass through a muslin cloth.

5. Finely chop the mint and add it to the sauce.

Notes:

1. The sauce should be kept at blood heat or it may curdle.

2. A stainless steel hand bowl is a suitable utensil for this sauce.

COLD SAUCES

22. ANDALOUSE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Cocktail sauce                                                           500 ml

Pimento                                                                       50 g

Method

1. Remove the seeds and core from the pimento and cut the flesh into julienne.

2. Add the pimento into the sauce.

Note: This sauce is usually served with fried fish.

23. COCKTAIL SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Mayonnaise                                                              375 ml

Tomato ketchup                                                       125 ml

Worcester sauce

Cayenne pepper

Method

1. Mix together the mayonnaise and ketchup.

2. Add Worcester sauce and cayenne pepper.

Note: This sauce should be salmon pink in colour.

24. CUMBERLAND SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Redcurrant jelly                                                       500 g

Port wine                                                                  125 ml

Shallots                                                                     20 g

Lemon                                                                          1

Orange.                                                                        1

English mustard                                                        5 g

Method

1. Dissolve the jelly and port together and allow to cool.

2. Peel the shallots and cut them into fine dice, then blanch them for one minute in boiling water. Allow then to drain.

3. Remove the zest from the orange and cut it into fine julienne. Blanch and drain.

4. Squeeze the juice from the oranges and lemon and add it to the melted jelly and port, add the remaining ingredients and mix thoroughly.

Note: This sauce can be served with ham or venison.

25. GREEN SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Mayonnaise                                                              500 ml

Spinach                                                                     15 g

Watercress                                                                15 g

Parsley                                                                        5 g

Chervil                                                                        5 g

Tarragon                                                                     5 g

Method

1. Blanch and puree the spinach, watercress, parsley chervil, and tarragon.

2. Mix the puree with the mayonnaise and adjust the seasoning.

26. MAYONNAISE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Egg yolks                                                                  4

Mustard                                                                    10 g

Salad oil                                                                    500 ml

Vinegar                                                                     50 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Place the egg yolks into a basin, add the mustard and mix with a little of the vinegar.

2. Slowly add the oil whisking constantly. As the sauce thickens add a little vinegar, continue until all the oil and vinegar have been incorporated then, season with salt and pepper.

Notes:

1. In cold weather remove the chill from the oil by warming it to blood heat.

2. If required 5 g of sugar may be added.

3. This sauce is mainly served with or used in salads and fish dishes.

The Art of the Sauce

27. REMOULADE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Mayonnaise                                                              500 ml

French mustard                                                         25 g

Gherkins                                                                      10 g

Capers                                                                          10 g

Parsley                                                                           5 g

Chervil                                                                           5 g

Tarragon                                                                       5 g

Anchovy essence

Method

1. Finely chop the gherkins, capers, chervil, tarragon and parsley.

2. Add them to the mayonnaise and mix thoroughly.

Note: This sauce is usually served with fried fish.

28. TARTARE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Parsley                                                                      10 g

Capers                                                                      50 g

Gherkins                                                                   50 g

Mayonnaise                                                              500 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Finely chop the capers, gherkins and parsley.

2. Add them to the mayonnaise and mix thoroughly.

Note: This sauce is usually served with deep fried fish dishes.

29. ACIDULATED CREAM

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Whipping cream                                                        500 ml

Lemon                                                                           1

Salt Pepper

Method

1. Lightly whip the cream

2. Add the lemon juice and season with salt and pepper.

Note: Do not over mix the cream or it will solidify. Sour cream is a commercially available product for use as a dressing and in hot dishes.

30. FRENCH DRESSING

450 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

French mustard                                                         5 g

Salad oil                                                                    300 ml

Vinegar                                                                      150 ml

Tarragon leaves                                                         5 g

Garlic                                                                           1

Chervil sprigs                                                           5 g

Basil leaves                                                                5 g

Salt

Method

1. Crush the herbs and garlic in the oil for one hour.

2. Infuse the herbs and garlic in the oil for one hour.

3. Add the vinegar and French mustard and mix together.

4. Correct the seasoning and strain through a sieve.

Note: Store the dressing in a bottle. Shake well prior to use.

31. LEMON AND HONEY DRESSING

250 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Clear honey                                                              20 ml

Lemon                                                                        3

Salad Oil                                                                   200 ml

Method

1. Mix the honey and lemon juice together.

2. Add the oil a little at a time and mix thoroughly.

Note: Store the dressing in a bottle and shake well before use.

32. VINAIGRETTE

450 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

English mustard                                                        5 g

Vinegar                                                                     150 ml                                                                                                                    

Oil                                                                             300 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Dilute the mustard with a little of the vinegar, mix with the salad oil then season with salt and pepper.

Notes:

1. Store in a suitable bottle. Shake well prior to use.

2. A pinch of sugar may be added if desired.

3. Vinaigrette is used as a dressing for a wide variety of salads.

33. YOGHURT DRESSING

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Plain yoghurt                                                           500 ml

Lemon juice                                                              1

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Beat the yoghurt until smooth then add the lemon juice and season.

VELOUTE

34. AMERICAINE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Live hen lobster                                                    1x1 kg

Shallots                                                                     50 g

Carrots                                                                      50 g

Garlic                                                                        1 clove

Oil                                                                              50 ml

Brandy                                                                      50 ml

White wine                                                               50 ml

Fish stock                                                                 500 ml

Meat glaze                                                                 25 g

Tomato puree                                                            25 g

Bouquet garni                                                            1 small

Tomatoes                                                                  200 g

Fish veloute                                                              250 ml

Butter                                                                        100 g

Method

1. Place the lobster on a board. Hold the lobster firmly and insert a trussing needle or the point of a knife through the cross mark on the centre of the head.

2. Remove the two large claws from the body of the lobster and crack the shell across the middle; the meat will be removed when cooked.

3. Separate the body from the tail and cut the tail into 4 pieces across the shell.

4. Cut the body in two lengthways, and remove the gravel bag. Remove and place on one side the intestines and coral which are reserved for finishing the sauce.

5. Crush and chop the garlic, peel and roughly chop the shallots and peel and dice the carrots.

6. Heat the oil in a saucepan until very hot, add the pieces of lobster and body shell and fry over a fierce heat until the flesh has stiffened and the shell is bright red in colour.

7. Add the carrots, shallots and garlic and saute for 3 minutes, drain off all the surplus oil and flambe with the brandy.

8. Add the wine, fish stock, meat glaze, tomato puree, bouquet garni and the chopped tomatoes, bring to the boil, season and skim.

9. Cover with a lid and cook over a gentle heat or in a moderate oven for 10 minutes then remove the lobster and shells from the liquor. Remove the lobster meat from the shell.

10. Reboil the liquor, reduce by two thirds.

11. Pound the lobster meat and shell in a mortar. Mix it with the veloute and add to the liquor.

12. Pass the coral and intestines through a sieve and add an equal amount of butter. Whisk this mixture into the sauce and then pass the sauce through the fine conical strainer into a saucepan.

13. Reheat without boiling, place in a bain marie and gadually whisk in the remaining butter.

35. CAPER SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Margarine                                        50 g

Flour                                                 50 g

Stock                                             500 ml

Capers                                             25 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Make a blond roux with the margarine and flour. Allow it to cool slightly.

2. Boil the lamb stock and add it gradually to the roux stirring constantly.

3. Simmer for 30 minutes then strain. Add the seasoning and the capers.

Note: This sauce is usually served with boiled mutton dishes.

36. CHICKEN VELOUTE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Margarine                                                                 50 g

Flour                                                                          50 g

Chicken stock                                                          500 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Make a blond roux with the margarine and flour and allow to cool slightly.

2. Boil the chicken stock and add it gradually to the roux stirring constantly.

3. Simmer for 30 minutes adjust the seasoning, strain through a sieve and cover with a lid or cartouche.

37. FISH VELOUTE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Margarine                                                                 50 g

Flour                                                                           50 g

Fish stock                                                                 500 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Make a blond roux with the margarine and flour. Allow it to cool slightly.

2. Boil the fish stock and add it gradually to the roux stirring constantly.

3. Simmer for 30 minutes, adjust the seasoning, strain through a sieve and cover with a lid or cartouche.

38. MUSHROOM SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Chicken veloute                                                        500 ml

Chicken stock                                                            500 ml

Mushrooms                                                                 125 g

Egg yolk                                                                         1

Single cream

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Put the stock, veloute and mushrooms into a saucepan, bring to the boil and reduce by half.

2. Remove from the heat, add the liaison of egg yolk and cream, adjust the seasoning and strain through a sieve.

Notes:

1. Do not reboil.

2. This sauce is served with poached or boiled poultry dishes.

39. NANTUA SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Carrots                                                                      15 g

Onions                                                                       15 g

Bacon                                                                         15 g

Lobster/Crayfish butter                                          100 g

White wine                                                                50 ml

Brandy                                                                        25 ml

Tomatoes                                                                   125 g

Tomato puree                                                            25 g

Fish veloute                                                              500 ml

Cream                                                                         125 g

Cayenne pepper

Salt

Method

1. Cut the carrots, onions and bacon into mirepoix and saute them in the crayfish butter.

2. Concasse the tomatoes and add them with the wine and brandy and the tomato puree.

3. Bring to the boil and reduce by one third.

4. Add the fish veloute and simmer for ten minutes.

5. Add the cayenne pepper, adjust the seasoning, strain through a muslin cloth and add the cream.

Note: This sauce is used with boiled or poached fish dishes.

40. SHRIMP SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Fish veloute                                                              500 ml

Picked shrimps                                                         100 g

Salt

Cayenne Pepper

Method

1. Bring the fish veloute to the boil

2. Adjust the seasoning and consistency using the fish stock.

3. Pass through a fine strainer and add the shrimps.

41. SUPREME SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Chicken veloute                                                        375 ml

Chicken stock                                                            375 ml

Mushroom trimmings                                               25 g

Single cream                                                              50 ml

Butter.                                                                            25 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Put the stock, veloute and mushroom trimmings into a saucepan, bring to the boil and reduce by one third.

2. Strain the sauce through muslin.

3. Reboil, adjust the seasoning, stir in the cream and the butter. Do not re-boil.

Note: This sauce is usually served with poultry dishes.

42. WHITE WINE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Fish veloute                                                              500 ml

Fish glaze                                                                  25 ml

White wine                                                                50 ml

Fish stock                                                                 100 ml

Butter                                                                        100 g

Fresh double cream                                                100 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1, Put the fish stock, white wine and fish glaze into a saucepan and reduce to an essence.

2. Add the veloute and the cream, reboil and reduce to a coating consistency. Remove from the heat and allow to cool slightly.

3. Stir in the butter gradually, pass through muslin and adjust the seasoning. Do not reboil.

Note: If the sauce is to be used for glazing, add a two egg yolks sabayon prior to Stage 3. This sauce is served with fish dishes.

43. ZIGEUNER SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Mushrooms                                                                  50 g

Red pepper                                                                   50 g

Green peppers                                                             50 g

Cucumber or dill gherkin                                          50 g

Onion                                                                             50 g

Chicken veloute                                                         500 ml

Oil.                                                                                 25 ml

Tomato ketchup.                                                        125 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel and finely shred the onions. Remove the core and seeds from the peppers and slice the flesh. Slice the mushrooms and the cucumber or gherkin into julienne.

2. Fry in the oil without colouring. Add the chicken veloute, tomato ketchup and seasoning. Bring to the boil and simmer until the vegetables are just cooked.

3. Skim and adjust the seasoning.

Note: This sauce is usually served with veal or pork schnitzels.


The Art of the Sauce

WHITE SAUCES

44. WHITE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Margarine                                                                 50 g

Flour                                                                          50 g

Milk                                                                          500 ml

Onion (studded with cloves)                                      25 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Make a white roux with the margarine and flour and allow to cool slightly.

2. Place the onion in the milk and bring to the boil then remove the onion.

3. Gradually add the boiling milk to the roux, stirring continuously.

4. Simmer for thirty minutes. Adjust the seasoning, pass through a fine strainer and cover with a lid or cartouche.

45. CHEESE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White sauce                                                              500 ml

Cheddar cheese                                                        60 g

Cayenne pepper

Method

1. Grate the cheese.

2. Boil the white sauce then stir in the cheese and cayenne pepper, do not reboil.

46. MORNAY SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White sauce                                                              500 ml

Cheddar cheese                                                        50 g

Egg yolks                                                                    2

Cayenne pepper

Method

1. Grate the cheese.

2. Boil the white sauce then stir in the cheese and cayenne pepper.

3. Cook the egg yolks to a sabayon.

4. Add the sabayon to the cheese sauce, do not reboil.

Note: This is a glazing sauce which may be served with fish, vegetables, egg and pasta dishes.

47. CREAM SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White sauce 500 ml

Fresh double cream 75 ml

Method

1. Hard boil the eggs, cool them under cold running water and remove the shells then cut them into dice.

2. Add them to the sauce.

Note: This sauce is normally served with poached or steamed fish.

48. EGG SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White sauce                                                              500 ml

Eggs                                                                             2

Method

1. Hard boil the eggs, cool then under cold running water and remove the shells then cut them into dice.

2. Add them to the sauce.

Note: This sauce is normally served with poached or steamed fish.

49. MUSTARD SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White sauce                                                              500 ml

English mustard                                                       25 g

Method

1. Prepare the mustard by adding a little water.

2. Boil the white sauce then remove it from the heat and stir in the mustard. Do not reboil.

Note: This sauce is normally served with grilled herrings.

50. ONION SAUCE (WHITE)

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White sauce                                                              500 ml

Onions                                                                       100 g

Method

1. Peel and shred the onions and cook them in a little water until tender.

2. Boil the white sauce and add the onions.

Note: This sauce is usually served with roast lamb.

51. PARSLEY SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

White sauce                                                              500 ml

Parsley                                                                       20 g

Method

1. Wash and roughly chop the parsley.

2. Boil the white sauce and add it to the parsley.

Note: This sauce is normally served with poached or steamed fish and certain boiled vegetables.

UNCLASSIFIED

52. APPLE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Cooking apples                                                        500 g

Water                                                                         50 ml

Sugar

Method

1. Wash, peel, core and quarter the apples.

2. Place them in a saucepan with the water, cover with a lid, bring to the boil and simmer until cooked.

3. Pass through a fine sieve, reheat and serve.

4. If the apples are excessively tart, sugar may be added.

Note: This sauce is served with pork.

53. BARBECUE SAUCE

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Onions                                                                      100 g

Celery                                                                       100 g

Red peppers                                                              50 g

Green peppers                                                          50 g

Tomatoes                                                                  500 g

Mushrooms                                                               50 g

Oil                                                                             25 ml

Cornflour                                                                  25 g

Garlic                                                                        2 cloves

Paprika                                                                     25 g

Sugar                                                                        50 g

Worcester sauce                                                     50 g

Chilli sauce

Brown stock                                                             500 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel and finely chop the onions. Blanch and finely dice the tomatoes. Remove the seeds and cores from the red and green pepper. Slice the mushrooms. Peel and finely dice the celery and crush the garlic.

2. Heat a little oil in a pan, add the onions, crushed garlic, celery and peppers and saute until tender.

3. Add the tomatoes, mushrooms, stock, sugar and seasonings. Bring to the boil and simmer for 30 minutes.

4. Thicken with the cornflour, adjust the seasoning and serve.

54. BREAD SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Milk                                                                          500 ml

Onion                                                                       1

Fresh white breadcrumbs                                    100 g

Margarine                                                                 25 g

Cloves                                                                      2

Method

1. Peel the onion and stud it with the cloves then put it with the milk into a saucepan and bring to the boil.

2. Remove from the heat, add the breadcrumbs and then stand the pan in a bain marie for 15 minutes.

3. Remove the onion and add the margarine, allow it to melt on the surface of the sauce.

4. Adjust the seasoning and mix in the margarine before serving.

Note: This sauce is served with poultry and game.

55. BROWN CHAUD-FROID SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Demi-glace                                    500 ml

Leaf gelatine                                   25 g

Method

1. Soak the gelatine in cold water.

2. Bring the demi-glace to the boil, adjust the seasoning.

3. Remove it from the heat and add the gelatine ensuring it dissolves completely then strain the sauce through a muslin cloth.

Notes:

1. If powdered gelatine is used, increase the amount by

15 g

2. This sauce is used to glaze meat and poultry for cold buffets.

56. WHITE CHAUD-FROID SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Veloute                                                                     500 ml

Cream                                                                       50 ml

Leaf gelatine                                                             25 g

Method

1. Soak the gelatine in cold water.

2. Bring the veloute to the boil and adjust the seasoning.

3. Remove it from the heat and add the gelatine ensuring it dissolves completely then strain the sauce through a muslin cloth. Stir in the cream.

Notes:

1. If powdered gelatine is used increase the amount by

15 g.

2. This sauce is used to glaze fish, meats or poultry for cold buffets.

57. CRANBERRY SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Cranberries                                                            250 g

Water                                                                        125 ml

Sugar                                                                        125 g

Method

1. Wash the cranberries.

2. oil them in a saucepan with the sugar and water until the berries are soft and form a light paste.

3. The sauce may be sieved but this is not essential.

Note: This sauce is traditionally served with turkey but can be used with other poultry.

58. CURRY SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Oil                                                                            25 ml

Garlic                                                                        1 clove

Flour                                                                         25 g

Cooking apples                                                         50 g

Chutney                                                                    50 g

Desiccated coconut                                                   15 g

Onions                                                                      10g

Curry powder                                                            15 g

Tomato puree                                                             15 g

White stock                                                               625 ml

Sultanas                                                                    25 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel and roughly chop the onions and peel and finely chop the garlic and cook them together in the oil without colouring.

2. Add the flour and curry powder and cook to a sandy texture. Boil the white stock.

3. Add the tomato puree, allow the mixture to cool then gradually add the white stock and mix to a smooth texture.

4. Peel, core and roughly chop the apple and add it to the sauce.

5. Add the remaining ingredients, adjust the seasoning and simmer for 30 minutes then pass the sauce through a strainer.

59. HORSERADISH SAUCE

250 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Horseradish                                                              50 g

Fresh whipping cream                                           200 ml

Lemon                                                                         1

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Wash and peel the horseradish and rub it through fine grater.

2. Lightly whisk the cream. Squeeze the juice from the lemon.

3. Fold in the horseradish and the lemon juice with the cream and adjust the seasoning.

60. JUS LIE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Veal or chicken bones                                           500 g

Oil                                                                              25 g

Carrots                                                                      50 g

Onions                                                                       50 g

Celery                                                                        50 g

Tomatoes                                                                  200

Brown stock                                                             1 ltr

Bouquet garni                                                         1 small

Arrowroot/cornflour                                                 50 g

Method

1. Saw the bones into small pieces.

2. Heat the oil in a saucepan, place in the bones; cover with a lid and apply gradual heat allowing the bones to colour and the juices to form a residue on the bottom of the pan.

3. Peel and dice the carrots, onions and celery and then saute them together.

4. Drain off the fat and add the tomatoes roughly chopped.

5, Cover with the stock, add the bouquet garni and reduce by half.

6. Skim and pass through a fine strainer; reboil then simmer.

7. Mix the arrowroot/cornflour with cold water and stir into the sauce.

8. Simmer for a further 3 minutes only and adjust the seasoning.

Notes:

1. If arrowroot is used instead of cornflour and brighter sauce will be produced. Care should be taken not to simmer the sauce for too long as the consistency will be affected.

2. The sauce should be a rich mahogany colour.

61. MINT SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Vinegar                                                                     500 ml

Mint leaves                                                               50 g

Sugar                                                                         50 g

Method

1. Wash and finely chop the mint leaves.

2. Place them into a basin with the sugar and vinegar and allow to stand for one hour.

3. Stir thoroughly before serving.

Notes:

1. When using dried mint, bring it to the boil in a little water and allow to infuse before adding the vinegar.

2. This sauce is served with roast lamb.

62. PORTUGAISE SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Onions or shallots                                                     50 g

Olive oil                                                                    125 ml

Garlic                                                                        1 clove

Tomatoes                                                                  400 g

Tomato sauce                                                          200 ml

Method

1. Concasse the tomatoes and finely peel and chop the garlic. Peel the onions or shallots, cut them into fine dice and fry them in the oil.

2. Add the garlic and tomato and fry together.

3. Add the tomato sauce and seasoning and bring to the boil then simmer for one minute.

63. ROAST GRAVY

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Meat juices from roasted joints

Brown stock                                                             500 ml

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. During the roasting process a proportion of the juices and fats contained in meat joints and poultry escape into the bottom of the roasting dish.

2. Remove the cooked joints from the dish.

3. Pour off the excess fat leaving the meat juices behind.

4. Heat these on the stove top to a temperature which will evaporate the moisture and leave a thick meaty residue.

5. Add the brown stock, bring to the boil and season.

6. Strain and serve with the carved joint.

64. TOMATO SAUCE

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Bacon trimmings                                                   25 g

Onion                                                                       25 g

Carrot                                                                       25 g

Celery                                                                       15 g

Margarine                                                                25 g

Flour                                                                         25 g

Tomato puree                                                         125 g

White stock                                                            500 ml

Tomatoes 125 Bouquet                                          garni 1

Malt vinegar                                                           60 ml

Sugar                                                                        10 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel and dice the onions and carrots. Dice the bacon. Cut the tomatoes into quarters.

2. Fry the bacon in the margarine, add the diced vegetables and fry to a light golden colour.

3. Add the flour and cook to a sandy mixture.

4. Add the tomato puree, and the stock and bring to the boil.

5. Add the tomatoes and the bouquet garni.

6. Cover with a lid and simmer for one hour.

7. Skim, pass through a fine strainer and reboil.

8. Boil together the vinegar and sugar in a saucepan until reduced by half then add to the tomato sauce and adjust the seasoning.