CHAPTER THIRTEEN Offal

BOILED

1. Ox Tongue

2. Tripe and onions

BRAISED

3. Heart

4. Sweetbreads

5. Oxtail

FARCES/MOUSSE

6. Liver pate (mousse)

7. Liver pate (coarse)

8. Liver pate (fine)

            FRIED

9. Liver and bacon

10. Liver and onions

11. Sweetbreads English style

GRILLED

12. Lambs kidneys

SAUTE

13. Chicken livers and rice

14. Kidney Bercy

15. Kidneys Bonne Femme

16. Kidneys Portuguese

17. Kidneys Turbigo

18. Stewed kidneys on fried bread

The Art of Offal

INTRODUCTION

1. Offal is any part of the animal removed from the carcass in the process of dressing, it does not include the hide or skin.

2. Edible offal consists of the following: brains, chitter-lings (pigs intestines) feet or trotters, head, heart, kidney, liver, lungs (lights), oxtail, spleen (melts) tongue and tripe.

3. The structure of offal varies according to the particular type and use in the body. Thus the heart, oxtail, tongue and tripe which are used for active work are of a different make-up from kidney and liver which are used for storage.

4. Offal has poor keeping quantities therefore it should be cooked as soon as possible. Offal received in the frozen state should not be thawed too soon in advance of requirement.

NOTES TO THE RECIPES

Tongue

5. Ox and lamb's tongues are the most common, calf's and pig's tongue usually being sold with the head.

a. Ox tongue. Ox tongue is the largest and can weigh between 1 kg and 2 kg. It can be purchased fresh, salted or frozen and after soaking, is cooked whole and usually served cold.

b. Lamb tongue. Lamb tongue is much smaller and weighs only about 200 g

Tripe

6. Tripe is obtained from the first and second stomach of a ruminant, *especially an ox. There are two common types of tripe available, each at which have their own particular qualities. All tripe should be thick, firm and white and it is usually sold "bleached" (cleaned and dressed) and partly boiled. Additional cooking times will vary according to the length of time of the pre-cooking.

* An animal that chews the cud (food matter) regurgitated from its rumen (first stomach).

a. Smooth tripe. From the rumen, which is the first stomach of the ox, smooth or blanket tripe is considered to have a lesser eating quality than best quality honeycomb tripe.

b. Honeycombe tripe. From the reticulum, which is the second stomach of the ox, honeycomb tripe is considered to have good eating qualities.

Notes:

1. A third type of tripe is also available which comes from the obomasum or "true stomach" of the ox. This is reddish brown in colour and is not considered to have such good eating qualities as the other types of tripe.

2. Tripe is also sometimes available from the sheep. It is of a dark colour and may be boiled or braised in the same way as the ox tripe.

Heart

7. The hearts of various animals are sold whole and those from the smaller animal groups will normally yield one portion per heart. From larger animals the heart is either portioned after cooking whole or cubed before cooking, thereby giving more than one portion per heart. The heart is a highly muscular organ and tends to be tough therefore best results are achieved by braising, pot roasting, casseroling or stewing.

a. Ox heart. This is the largest of the hearts and can weigh between 1.8 mg and 2.2 kg. It is solid in texture, dark in colour and also tends to be dry and tough. Can be cubed before cooking or halved and sliced after cooking.

b. Calf's heart. Because this comes from a younger animal, it is lighter in colour and more tender.

c. Sheep's heart. Dark in colour and dense in texture, these can be dry and tough and require careful cooking.

d. Lamb's heart. Smaller and lighter in colour and weight than the sheep's heart, lamb's heart is normally served whole and is quite tender after cooking.

Sweetbreads

8. There are 2 types of sweetbreads, which are glands located within the body of either a calf, lamb or ox. These are:

a. Neck. Thymus which are located in the neck and they are considered of inferior quality to heart.

b. Heart. Pancreas which are located near the stomach. They are considered of superior quality to the thymus.

9. The thymus is usually long in shape and can be easily identified from the pancreas which is, heart shaped. Both types are valuable as foods, are easily digested and are useful for building and repairing tissues. General qualities to look for are: they should be fleshy and large, creamy white in colour and have a pleasant, if strong smell, which will diminish with cooking.

a. Calf's sweetbreads. These are considered the finest in flavour and texture. The pancreas sweetbread can weigh as much as 750 g and should be round and plump.

b. Lamb's sweetbreads. Smaller, with less pronounced flavour, the pancreas sweetbreads weigh up to 100 g.

c. Ox sweetbreads. These are large and tough, have a strong flavour and require longer cooking times than lamb's or calf's sweetbreads to tenderise them.

Kidney

10. Kidney is a nutritious and economical offal and is a classic partner to steak in traditional pies and puddings. There are a number of varieties available, each of which can be cooked and served in several different ways:

a. Ox kidney. This is large and coarse and can weigh up to 600 g. It is usually tough, has a strong flavour and is dark red in colour. Ox kidney is really only suitable for slow, moist cooking as an accompaniment to other meats in pies, puddings, stews and casseroles.

b. Calf kidney. Considered the best in terms of quality, calf's kidney is light in colour, delicate in flavour, is quite tender and can be braised or stewed in a variety of dishes.

c. Lamb's kidney. The best for grilling, lamb's kidney is light brown in colour, has a very delicate flavour and is ideal for grilling or frying. Sheep's kidney should not be confused with lamb's and can easily be differentiated by its darker colour and stronger flavour.

d. Pig's liver. This is dark in colour and longer and thinner than lamb's kidney. Having quite a strong flavour, pig's kidney is not as popular as the others. However, it may be grilled or fried in halves or cut up and used for stews and casseroles.

Liver

11. Liver is a valuable protective food and a rich source of vitamin A and iron. It can be prepared and cooked in a number of ways and is a versatile and popular offal.

a. Ox liver. This is a large organ taken from an older animal and it can be coarse in texture and strong in flavour. It is best soaked in milk to mellow the strong flavour, after which it may be stewed or braised. It is not recommended for grilling or frying but can be used this way if cut into thin strips and cooked carefully.

b. Calf's liver. This is considered the best for tenderness, delicacy of flavour and colour. It is a pale milky brown in colour and is soft to the touch. Best eaten cut into strips and served lightly grilled or fried with a suitable accompaniment.

c. Lamb's liver. This has a mild flavour, is quite tender and is pale pinkish brown in colour. A dark liver denotes that it may come from an older animal (mutton) and cannot be compared with the eating quality of lamb's liver. Like calf's liver, lamb's liver is best cut into strips and served lightly grilled or fried, again with a suitable accompaniment.

d. Pig's liver. This has a strong flavour, is soft in texture and is pinkish brown in colour. It is not considered as good as calf's or lamb's liver, but may still be grilled or fried in the same way. It is often better used in pates or included in stews and casseroles.

Oxtail

12. Usually brought ready skinned and weighing approximately 1.4 kg, oxtail has less lean red meat and a covering of firm white fat. Excess fat should be removed and the tail sectioned before cooking. Cooking times are lengthy to ensure tenderness and oxtail is excellent braised or casseroled, served in a rich sauce. Oxtail is also used as the basis for oxtail soup.

Beef marrow

13. The marrow contained in the large thigh and shoulder bones of the ox is considered a delicacy. The bones are sawn into manageable lengths and the marrow can be cut into slices, poached and used as a garnish for certain dishes. Alternatively, the end of the marrow bone can be sealed with flour and water paste and the bone poached, after which the marrow can be extracted and served as an hors d'oeuvre.

The Art of Offal

BOILED

1. BOILED OX TONGUE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Pickled Ox Tongue                                                1-2

according to size (see notes)

Madeira sauce                                                      500 g

Method

1. Soak the tongue in cold water for 3 hours.

2. Drain and place it in a saucepan. Cover with cold water, bring to the boil, skim and simmer for 3 hours.

3. Remove the tongue from the pan, allow it to cool for 15 minutes then remove the skin and trim the root.

4. Slice and serve with a Madeira sauce.

Note: If the tongue is to be served cold, cover it with greaseproof paper and allow to cool. Arrange the tongue in the required shape. This can be flat on a board under light pressure or in the shape of a boot by means of a frame. When completely cool it can be decorated and glazed with aspic. Ox tongues can weigh up to 2 kg; allow up to 200 g uncooked weight per portion.

2. TRIPE AND ONIONS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Dressed tripe                                                        1 kg

Milk                                                                     500 ml

Water                                                                   500 ml

Onions                                                                 400 g

Beurre Manie                                                       110 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Wash the tripe and cut it into 5 cm squares. Peel and slice the onions.

2. Blanch and refresh.

3. Put the tripe, and the milk and water into a pan with the sliced onion.

4. Bring to the boil, add seasoning and simmer for 2 hours.

5. Thicken the liquid with the beurre manie, continue to simmer for a further 10 minutes then adjust the seasoning and serve.

Notes:

1. Tripe comes from the first or second stomach of an animal.

2. There are 3 kinds, honeycomb, blanket and thick seam, honeycomb is probably the best known.

3. It is usually sold "dressed" which means it has been cleaned and par-boiled.

BRAISED

3. BRAISED STUFFED SHEEP'S HEARTS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Sheep's hearts                                                      10

Back fat                                                                100 g

Parsley and thyme                                             500 g

Stuffing

Onions                                                                 150 g

Carrots                                                                150 g

Brown sauce                                                     500 ml

Brown stock                                                     500 ml

Parsley (chopped)

Oil

Salt

Pepper

Bouquet garni                                                 1 small

Method

1. Trim the hearts by removing the arteries, wash thoroughly in salt water and fill them with the stuffing.

2. Cover the openings with back fat and tie securely.

3. Peel the carrots and the onions, cut them into rough dice and shallow fry them together.

4. Place the hearts and the vegetables into a braising pan and add the bouquet garni, brown sauce and brown stock.

5. Bring to the boil and braise in an oven at 180°C for 2 hours.

6. Transfer the hearts to a warm serving dish, pass the sauce through a fine strainer, skim and adjust the consistency and seasoning.

7. Mask the hearts with a little sauce and sprinkle with chopped parsley for service. Serve the remaining sauce separately.

Notes:

1. Ox hearts can also be prepared in this way, however, they will take up to 4 hours braising.

2. Each ox heart weighs 1.8 kg - 2.2 kg which will produce up to 9 portions.

3. When cooked the ox heart should be cut in half and carved lengthways.

4. BRAISED SWEETBREADS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Sweetbreads (calfs or lambs)                               1.2 kg

Carrots                                                                    150 g

Onions                                                                    150 g

Jus lie                                                                       1 ltr

Butter                                                                      25 g

Method

1. Peel the carrots and onions and cut them into thick slices. Wash the sweetbreads under running cold water until all traces of blood have been removed.

2. Place them in a saucepan, cover with cold water, bring to the boil and simmer for 10 minutes. Refresh in cold water and allow to go cold.

3. Trim off all superfluous skin and tissue. Press the sweetbreads under a light weight for about 2 hours.

4. Place the sweetbreads on the sliced vegetables in a braising pan. Brush with butter and set in an oven at 220°C.

5. Reduce the temperature of the oven to 180°C, add the jus lie to the sweetbreads cover with a lid and cook for 45 minutes.

6. Remove the lid, baste and glaze the sweetbreads.

7. Remove the sweetbreads from the pan, strain the jus lie and serve with an appropriate garnish.

Notes:

1. Sweetbreads are the pancreas or thymus glands of animals. The pancreas ones are larger and rounder and better than those of the thymus which are long and thin.

2. Appropriate garnishes are:

a. Judic - Stuffed tomatoes, braised lettuce, slices of truffle coated with Madeira sauce.

b. Princess - Artichoke bottoms, filled with poached beef marrow served with Bordelaise sauce.

5. OXTAIL

8 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Oxtails                                                                     2

Onion                                                                   200 g

Carrot                                                                  200 g

Flour                                                                     50 g

Tomato puree                                                     25 g

Brown stock                                                       1 ltr

Bouquet garni                                                 1 small

Garlic 1 clove

Oil

Parsley (chopped)

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Peel the carrots and onions, cut them into dice and shallow fry to a golden brown. Place in a braising pan.

2. Cut the oxtails into sections. Remove any excess fat and shallow fry the sections in hot fat. Place in a braising pan.

3. Mix in the flour, tomato puree and stock.

4. Bring to the boil, add the bouquet garni and seasoning, peel, crush and add the garlic. Cover with a lid and simmer in the oven at 180°C for 3 hours until tender.

5. Transfer the meat from the sauce to a warm serving dish.

6. Adjust the seasoning and consistency of the sauce, strain and pour it over the meat. Garnish with chopped parsley for service.

Note: Oxtails weigh approximately 1.4 kg and each one is sufficient for 4 portions.

FARCES/MOUSSES

6. LIVER PATE MOUSSE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Liver pate                                                              100 g

White sauce                                                          50 ml

Leaf gelatine                                                          10 g

Cream                                                                    75 ml

Method

1. Sieve the liver pate and white sauce together through a fine mesh and place in a basin on ice.

2. Soak and melt the gelatine.

3. Half whisk the cream.

4. Stir the gelatine thoroughly into the pate mixture.

5. Fold in the whipped cream, the mousse is now ready for use.

7. LIVER PATE (COARSE)

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Liver (calves, sheep or pigs)                                200 g

Belly of pork                                                          200 g

Fresh cream or evaporated milk                       75 ml

Brandy                                                                   50 ml

Garlic                                                                    1 clove

Back fat                                                                 200 g

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Dice the pork and peel and crush the garlic.

2. Cut the liver into small pieces then mince these ingredients through a medium coarse plate.

3. Add the cream, brandy and seasoning.

4. Line an earthenware dish with thin slices of back fat.

5. Fill with the mixture and cover with thin slices of back fat.

6. Place the dish into a baking tray half filled with boiling water and bake in an oven at 180°C for 2 hours then press down with a weight for one hour.

7. Remove the weight and leave to go cold.

Note: Sherry and chopped truffles may be added at stage 4.

8. LIVER PATE (FINE)

500 GRAMS

Ingredients

Chicken livers                                                      200 g

Belly of pork                                                         200 g

Back fat                                                                  200 g

Fresh cream                                                          60 ml

Oil

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Cut the pork into dice and shallow fry it with the chicken livers.

2. Mince the livers and pork through a fine plate then pass through a sieve.

3. Add the seasoning and the cream.

4. Line an earthenware dish with thin slices of back fat, fill with the mixture and cover with thin slices of back fat.

5. Place the dish into a baking tray half filled with boiling water and bake in an oven at 180°C for 2 hours then press down with a weight for one hour.

6. Remove the weight and allow to go cold.

FRIED

9. FRIED LIVER AND BACON

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Liver                                                                     1 kg

Flour                                                                    100 g

Bacon                                                                   400 g

Jus lie                                                                   250 ml

Oil

Parsley (chopped)

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Cut the liver into thin slices.

2. Pass it through seasoned flour and shallow fry it in oil until just cooked through, then transfer to a warm dish and keep hot.

3. Cook the bacon under a grill and garnish the liver. Surround with jus lie, decorate with chopped parsley and serve immediately.

Note: Ox liver has a strong flavour. This can be mellowed by soaking it in milk for one hour prior to cooking.

10. FRIED LIVER AND ONIONS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Liver                                                                     1 kg

Flour                                                                    100 g

Onions                                                                 400 g

Jus lie                                                                   250 ml

Oil

Parsley (chopped)

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Cut the liver into thin slices. Peel and slice the onions.

2. Pass the liver through seasoned flour and shallow fry it in oil until just cooked through then transfer to a warm serving dish and keep hot.

3. Saute the onions until tender and golden brown.

4. Garnish the liver with the onions, surround with jus lie, decorate with chopped parsley and serve immediately.

Note: Ox liver has a strong flavour. This can be mellowed by soaking it in milk for one hour.

11. SWEETBREADS ENGLISH STYLE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Sweetbreads                                                         1.2 kg

Flour                                                                       50 g

Eggs                                                                          3

Breadcrumbs                                                        150 g

Brown butter                                                         100 g

Jus lie                                                                     250 ml

Blanc                                                                        1 ltr

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Soak the sweetbreads in cold water for 2 hours, then drain and trim them.

2. Simmer them in the blanc for 15 minutes, remove from the heat, allow them to cool in the liquid then wash them in cold water without breaking.

3. Cut the sweetbreads into thick slices.

4. Pass them through seasoned flour, egg wash and bread-crumbs and shallow fry gently in the butter.

5. Serve surrounded by jus lie and masked over with brown butter.

GRILLED

12. GRILLED LAMB'S KIDNEYS

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Lamb's kidneys                                                     20

Parsley butter                                                       75 g

Straw potatoes                                                    100 g

Watercress                                                         1 bunch

Oil

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Remove the skins from the kidneys, cut them in half lengthways and remove the white tubes. Open out the kidneys and skewer through each so that the kidneys form a cup.

2. Place the kidneys on a try, season and brush with oil.

3. Place the kidney under a grill with the cut sides towards the flame and allow them to cook until the blood percolates through then turn them over and cook the other side.

4. Transfer the kidneys to a warm dish and serve with a slice of parsley butter in each kidney and watercress and straw potatoes around.

Note: Sheep, lamb's and pig's kidneys have a better flavour than ox kidney which is more suitable for pies and stews.

SAUTE

13. CHICKEN LIVERS AND RICE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Chicken livers                                                      500 g

Shallots                                                                  25 g

Demi glace                                                            250 ml

Pilaff of rice                                                          400 g

Oil

Parsley (chopped)

Method

1. Cut the chicken livers in half and shallow fry them in oil.

2. Peel the shallots, cut them into small dice and fry them with the livers.

3. Add the demi-glace, bring to the boil and remove from the heat.

4. Serve in a border of rice and decorate the livers with chopped parsley.

14. KIDNEYS BERCY

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Lamb or veal kidneys                                          1 kg

Shallots                                                                  50 g

White wine                                                            75 ml

Demi glace                                                           250 ml

Butter                                                                      50 g

Oil

Salt

Pepper

Parsley (chopped)

Method

1. Cut the kidneys into slices, season and shallow fry in oil until just cooked through.

2. Remove the kidneys from the pan to a warm serving dish. Keep hot.

3. Peel and slice the shallots and shallow fry until tender then add the white wine and reduce by half.

4. Add the demi glace and simmer for 2 minutes.

5. Remove from the heat and whisk in the butter.

6. Pour the sauce over the kidneys and serve decorated with chopped parsley.

15. KIDNEY BONNE FEMME

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Lamb or Veal Kidneys                                         1 kg

Glazed button onions                                         100 g

White wine                                                           75 ml

Demi glace                                                           250 ml

Bacon                                                                    100 g

Olivette potatoes                                                 100 g

Parsley (chopped)

Oil

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Cut the bacon into lardons, shallow fry them in oil, put them into a warm serving dish and keep hot.

2. Peel the onions cut them into dice, fry them in a little oil with the potatoes and then place with the bacon.

3. Remove the skins from the kidneys, cut them into slices, remove the white tubes, season and shallow fry the slices in oil then put them with the bacon, potatoes and onions. Keep hot. Strain any surplus fat from the pan, put in the white wine, boil and reduce by one third.

4. Add the demi glace return to the boil, pour over the ingredients in the serving dish and serve decorated with the chopped parsley.

16. KIDNEYS PORTUGAISE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Lamb's kidneys                                                   1 kg

Onions                                                                 100 g

Tomatoes                                                            400 g

Garlic                                                                     5 g

White wine                                                           75 ml

Tomato puree                                                       25 g

Demi glace                                                           250 ml

Oil

Parsley (chopped)

Method

1. Cut the kidneys lengthways into halves. Remove the skins and the white tubes.

2. Season the kidneys and shallow fry them until just cooked through then transfer them to a warm dish and keep hot.

3. Peel the onions and cut them into fine dice. Blanch the tomatoes, remove the skins and seeds and cut the flesh into small dice. Peel and chop the garlic.

4. Shallow fry the onions to a golden colour, add the tomatoes, garlic, white wine and tomato puree.

5. Bring to the boil, add the demi glace and simmer for 5 minutes.

6. Pour over the kidneys and simmer for a further 10 minutes until the kidneys are tender. Serve decorated with chopped parsley.

17. KIDNEYS TURBIGO

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Lamb's kidneys                                                   1 kg

Chipolata sausages                                              10

Mushrooms                                                          200 g

Lemon                                                                      1

Demi glace                                                           250 ml

Heart shaped croutons                                         10

Oil

Salt

Pepper

Parsley (chopped)

Method

1. Cut the kidneys lengthways in half. Remove the skins and white tubes.

2. Shallow fry the chipolata sausages. Transfer them to a warm dish and keep hot.

3. Peel and scallop the mushrooms and cook them in a little acidulated water. Put them with the sausages.

4. Season the kidneys, shallow fry them in oil and put them into the dish with the sausages and mushrooms.

5. Put the demi glace in the pan used to cook the kidneys, bring to the boil and strain over the kidneys then simmer all the ingredients together for 3 minutes. Transfer to a warm serving dish and garnish with the parsley and heart shaped croutons.

18. STEWED KIDNEYS ON FRIED BREAD

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Ox kidneys                                                           1 kg

Brown stock                                                      250 ml

Onions                                                                  50 g

Brown sauce                                                        1 ltr

Bread slices                                                           10

Oil

Parsley (chopped)

Salt

Pepper

Method

1. Cut the kidneys lengthways in half. Remove the skins and the white tubes and then slice the kidneys 5 mm thick. Peel the onions and cut the flesh into dice.

2. Season the kidneys and shallow fry them in oil; fry the onions until tender.

3. Add the brown sauce and brown stock, bring to the boil, cover with a lid and simmer for 45 minutes.

4. Remove the lid, adjust the seasoning and consistency.

5. Fry the slices of bread.

6. Place a portion of stewed kidneys on each slice of fried bread, decorate with chopped parsley and serve immediately.