CHAPTER THREE Thickening Agents

Thickening Agents

 ROUX

1. Beurre manie

2. Blond

3. Brown

4. White

​LIAISONS

5. Arrowroot

6. Blood

7. Cornflour

8. Egg yolks

9. Egg yolks and cream

10. Fecule

INTRODUCTION

1. Thickening agents are divided into roux and liaisons.

Roux

2. There are 2 types of roux:

a. Uncooked - Beurre Manie

b. Cooked - white, blond and brown.

3. Beurre Manie is an uncooked roux; a mixture of butter and flour kneaded together and added to boiling liquid to thicken it just prior to serving.

4. A cooked roux is a combination of fat, oil, butter or margarine and flour cooked together. It is used in the making of sauces and soups. Care must be taken during the cooking process to ensure that the flour does not burn. If the roux burns it will impart a bitter taste and discolour the sauce. A roux must be allowed to cool before any liquid is added.

Liaisons

5. The required thickening of the basic liquid by a liaison is obtained by the addition of uncooked starches, yolks of egg, cream and blood.

6. The 2 main sources of starch for thickening are grains eg corn or roots eg arrowroot, potato and cassava.

ROUX

1. MANIE BUTTER (BEURRE MANIE)

Ingredients

Butter                                                                   60 g

flour                                                                      50 g

Method

1. Mix the butter and flour together to a perfectly smooth texture.

Note:This is used as a last minute thickening agent for sauces and some vegetable dishes. The sauce or vegetable to which manie butter has been added should be brought to the boil and then served.

2. BLOND ROUX

Ingredients

Margarine                                                             50 g

Flour                                                                     50 g

Method

1. Melt the margarine in a thick saucepan and stir in the flour.

2. Cook to a blood or pale biscuit colour.

Note: the roux must be allowed to cool before any liquid is added. This amount is sufficient for 500 ml of sauce.

3. BROWN ROUX

Ingredients

Oil                                                                           50 g

Browned flour                                                      60 g

Method

1. Heat the oil in a tick saucepan and stir in the flour.

2., Cook in an oven or on the side of the stove, stirring frequently until a medium brown colour is achieved.

Notes:

1. Browned flour is produced by spreading flour evenly on a shallow tray and colouring in a moderate oven. The flour should be turned frequently during cooking to ensure an even colour. When ready it should be sieved and stored in an airtight container until required.

2. The roux must be allowed to cool before any liquid is added. This amount is sufficient for 500 ml of sauce.

4. WHITE ROUX

Ingredients

Margarine                                                                 50g

Flour                                                                          50g

Method

1. Melt the margarine in a thick saucepan and stir in the flour.

2. Cook to an even texture without colouring.

Note: The roux must be allowed to cool before any liquid is added. This amount is sufficient for 500 ml of sauce.

LIAISONS

5. ARROWROOT

1. Mix the arrowroot with a little of the cold water, stock or milk to a smooth paste.

2. Bring the remainder of the liquid to the boil, add the arrowroot and reboil.

Notes:

1. Allow approximately 50 g of arrowroot per litre of liquid.

2. If arrowroot is cooked for too long it loses its thickening properties.

3. Arrowroot becomes transparent when boiled and is therefore more suitable than other thickening agents when clear sauce is required.

6. BLOOD

Used for jugged hare.

1. Bring the liquid to the boil and adjust the seasoning.

2. Gradually add the blood to thicken the sauce.

3. Do not boil or the sauce will separate.

7. CORNFLOUR

1. Mix the cornflour with a little of the cold water, stock or milk to a smooth paste.

2. Bring the remainder of the liquid to the boil, add the cornflour and reboil.

Note: Allow approximately 50 g of cornflour per litre of liquid.

8.EGG YOLKS

Use as appropriate to the recipe.

9. EGG YOLKS AND CREAM

Mix the cream and yolks together and add to the sauce or soup; do not reboil.

Note: The amount of egg yolks to cream may vary according to the recipe.

10. POTATO FLOUR (FECULE)

1. Mix potato flour with a little cold stock or water to a smooth paste.

2. Bring the remainder of the liquid to the boil, add the potato flour and reboil.

Note: Suitable for thickening certain soups and sauces.