CHAPTER TWO Basic Preparations

Basic Preparations

BREAD ITEMS

1. Croute de flute

2. Croutons

3. Fried

4. Garlic

5. Melba toast

6. Sippets

JELLIES

16. Aspic

17. Chicken aspic

18. Fish aspic

19. Game aspic

BUTTERS (COLD)

7. Anchovy

8. Garlic

UNCLASSIFIED continued.

9. Lobster/Crayfish

10. Parsley

11. Salmon

12. Shrimp.

(HOT) Butter

13. Black

14. Clarified

15. Nut brown

UNCLASSIFIED

20. Blanc

21. Marinade

22. Porridge

23. Socle

24. Vegetable garnishes for cold dishes


BREAD ITEMS

1. CROUTES DE FLUTE

Ingredients

French Loaf

Method

Cut the loaf into thin slices and toast on both sides.

2. CROUTONS

Ingredients

Sandwich loaf

Oil

Method

1. Slice the load into 10 mm thick slices.

2. Cut into the required shape and shallow fry to a golden brown.

Note: Croutons can also be made from toasted bread. In which case the toast should be buttered.

3. FRIED BREAD

Ingredients

Sandwich loaf

Allow 1 slice per 2 portions

Oil

Method

1. Heat the oil in a frying pan.

2. Slice the bread into 10 mm thick slices and cut in half diagonally.

3. Shallow fry on both sides to a golden brown.

4. GARLIC BREAD

10 PORTIONS

Ingredient

French loaf 1

Garlic butter 200 g

Method

1. Cut the loaf into thick slices without completely separating the slices.

2. Spread the slices with the garlic butter.

3. Wrap the loaf loosely in kitchen foil and place in an oven 160oC for 15 minutes.

4. Raise the oven temperature to 230oC.

5. Remove the loaf from the oven. Fold back the foil and return the loaf to the oven for a further 5 minutes to crisp.

5. MELBA TOAST

Ingredients

Bread, allow 2 slices per portion

Method

1. Toast the slices of bread on both sides.

2. Remove the crusts and cut through the middle so that 2 thin slices toasted on one side remain.

3. Remove doughy centre and cut slice in half diagonally.

4. Place under a grill un-toasted side up and lightly colour.

5. When cold store in an airtight tin until required for service.

6. SIPPETS

Ingredients

Sandwich loaf

Oil

Method

1. Slice the loaf into 10 mm thick slices.

2. Remove the crusts and cut the slice into small cubes.

3. Heat the oil in a frying pan.

4. Shallow fry the cubes until golden brown all over.

5. Drain and use as garnish for soups.

BUTTERS (COLD)

INTRODUCTION

1. A compound butter is simply a butter with the addition of a variety of ingredients producing different flavours. The finished butter can then be used in several ways:

a. As a simple accompaniment. For example parsley butter. This helps the grilled item to remain moist and enhance the flavour and presentation.

b. As a filling. An example is shrimp or salmon butter. It is then piped into small cooked pastry cases prior to them being garnished, decorated and masked with aspic jelly for service as a cocktail. these butter fillings may also be made from various other shellfish, such as crab and prawns or from meat purees such as fresh or smoked chicken and game and liver pate.

c. As a liaison. for example at the finishing stages of sauce. Americaine and Lobster Americaine. The coral and intestines of lobster are sieved then mixed with an equal amount of butter. This mixture is whisked into the hot sauce, the sauce passed through a fine strainer and re-heated without boiling. The purpose of the lobster butter is to thicken the sauce, enrich the flavour and enhance the colour.

2, The majority of compound butters can be prepared well in advance wrapped and stored in a refrigerator. The butters may be sliced before service and the slices kept in iced water to keep them separate. An alternative method of presentation is to pipe the butters using a star tube onto a tray and refrigerate until required.

3. It should be noted that certain dishes dictate the use of compound butters as part of the garnish eg steak or lamb cutlets "Vert Pre" requires parsley butter.

4. Due to the high fat content and the bland flavour of butter, compound butter needs to be seasoned to bring out the desired flavour.

7. ANCHOVY

200 GRAMS

Ingredients

Butter 150 g

Anchovy fillets 50 g

Cayenne pepper

Lemon (juice) 1

Method

1. Drain the anchovies and pass through a sieve.

2. Cream all the ingredients together.

3. Roll into a 30 mm cylinder in damp greaseproof paper and store in a refrigerator. Cut into slices as required.

Notes:

1. After cutting the slices of butter for service they should be kept in iced water.

2. 25g of anchovy essence may be used in place of anchovy fillets.

8. GARLIC BUTTER

200 GRAMS

Ingredients

Butter 200 g

Garlic 2 Cloves

Method

1. Peel and crush the garlic.

2. Cream the butter and garlic together and pass through a fine sieve.

9. LOBSTER/CRAYFISH BUTTER

200 GRAMS

Ingredients

Lobster or Crayfish, trimmings shells

and intestines 100 g

Butter 100 g

Seasoning

Method

1. Pound the shell, trimmings and intestines (except the queen) in a mortar to a fine paste.

2. Blend thoroughly with an equal amount of butter and add the seasoning.

3. Place in a small pan in a bain-marie. Allow to melt, during which time the butter will absorb flavour and colour from the other ingredients.

4. Pass through a fine cloth into a bowl and place on ice to set.

Note: Used to enrich and give colour to various fish and shellfish soups, sauces and certain other shellfish dishes.

10. PARSLEY BUTTER

150 GRAMS

Ingredients

Butter 150 g

Lemon 1

Parsley (chopped) 20 g

Cayenne pepper

Method

1. Cream the butter with the lemon juice.

2. Mix in the chopped parsley and cayenne pepper.

3. Form into a roll in damp greaseproof paper.

4. Place in a refrigerator to set. Cut into slices for service.

Notes:

1. The prepared butter slices should be kept in iced water until required for service.

2. Used for grilled meat and fish.

11. SALMON BUTTER

200 GRAMS

Ingredients

Cooked salmon 100 g

Butter 100 g

Cayenne pepper

Method

1. Pass the salmon through the fine sieve.

2. Blend with the butter and seasoning.

3. Pass the whole mixture through a fine sieve and use as required.

Note: Used for cocktail savouries and for decorating cold salmon.

12. SHRIMP BUTTER

200 GRAMS

Ingredients

Cooked shrimp 100 g

Butter 100 g

Paprika

Method

1. Pass the shrimps through a fine sieve.

2. Blend with the butter and seasoning.

3. Pass the whole mixture through a sieve.

4. Roll in damp greaseproof paper and store in refrigerator. Cut into slices for service.

Note: The prepared butter slices should be kept in iced water until required for service.

BUTTER (HOT)

13. BLACK BUTTER

100 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Butter 125 g

Vinegar 10 ml

Method

1. Heat the butter in a pan until well coloured.

2. Add a little vinegar, pour over the food and serve immediately.

(Hot) Butter Continued

14. CLARIFIED BUTTER

100 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Butter 125 g

Method

1. Heat the butter gently in a saucepan until the milk solids separate from the fat.

2. Separate the clarified fat from the residue, which is discarded.

15. NUT BROWN BUTTER

100 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Butter 150g

Lemon 1

Method

1. Heat the butter in a pan until nut brown in colour.

2. Squeeze the juice of lemon into the butter to arrest, the cooking process and then pour over the finished

SAVOURY JELLIES

INTRODUCTION

These jellies are used primarily as decoration for cold dishes. quantities required will vary according to the dish. The following recipes are to provide stock amounts.

16. ASPIC JELLY

15 LITRES

Ingredients

White stock 2 ltr

Egg whites 2

Minced shin of beef 400 g

Leaf gelatine 100 f

Salt

Method

1. Soak the gelatine in a little cold water.

2. Mix the beef, egg whites and salt with a little cold white stock.

3. Add the gelatine and the remaining stock.

4. Bring slowly to a gentle simmer stirring occasionally to prevent the egg whites sticking to the pan. Once the liquid begins to simmer do not stir again.

5. As the egg whites solidify they combine with the meat to form a crust and in so doing clarify the stock. Allow to simmer without disturbing the crust for one hour.

6. Strain through four thicknesses of muslin without disturbing the clarification and removing any surface fat with absorbent paper.

7. When cold refrigerate until firm.

Notes:

1. When used for glazing, aspic jellies should be brought to setting point over iced water.

2. If powdered gelatine is used allow 140 g for each 2 litres of stock.

17. CHICKEN ASPIC

1.5 LITRES

Ingredients

Chicken stock 2 ltr

Egg whites 2

Leaf gelatine 100 g

Salt

Method

1. Soak the gelatine in a little cold water.

2. Mix the egg whites and salt with a little cold chicken stock.

3. Add the soaked gelatine and the remaining stock.

4. Bring slowly to a gentle simmer stirring occasionally to prevent the egg whites sticking to the pan. Once the liquid begins to simmer do not stir again.

5. Allow to simmer gently for one hour.

6. Strain through four thicknesses of muslin without disturbing the clarification and remove any surface fat with absorbent paper.

7. When cold refrigerate until firm.

Note To enhance the flavour the minced flesh and carcass of chicken may be added at stage 2.

18. FISH ASPIC

2 LITRES

Ingredients

Fish stock 2 ltr

Leaf gelatine 100 g

Egg whites 4

Salt

Method

1. Soak the gelatine in a little cold water.

2. Mix the egg whites together with a little cold stock.

3. Add the gelatine, salt and remaining stock.

4. Bring slowly to a gentle simmer stirring occasionally to prevent the egg white sticking to the pan. Once the liquid begins to simmer do not stir again.

5. As the egg whites solidify they form a crust and in doing so clarify the stock.

6. Simmer gently for 10 minutes.

7. Strain through 4 thicknesses of muslin without disturbing the clarification and remove any surface fat with absorbent paper.

8. When cold refrigerate until firm.

Note: To enhance the flavour the minced trimmings

and flesh of white fish may be added at Stage 2. This will require an increase in cooking time of 30 minutes. A fish jelly may be further flavoured by the addition of white wine in place of the same amount of fish stock.

19. GAME ASPIC

1.5 LITRES

Ingredients

Rich game stock 2 ltr

Egg whites 2

Leaf gelatine 100 g

Salt

Method

1. Soak the gelatine in a little cold water.

2. Mix the egg whites and salt with a little cold game stock.

3.. Add the gelatine and the remaining stock.

4. Bring slowly to a gentle simmer stirring occasionally to prevent the egg whites sticking to the pan. Once the liquid begins to simmer do not stir again.

5. Allow to simmer without disturbing the crust for one hour.

6. Strain through 4 thicknesses of muslin without disturbing the clarification and remove any surface fat with absorbent paper.

7. When cold refrigerate until firm.

Notes:

1. To enhance the flavour the minced flesh and carcass of game may be added at Stage 2.

2. A game jelly may be further flavoured by the addition of a small amount of brandy, madeira or marsala at the completion of Stage 6.

UNCLASSIFIED

20. BLANC

2 LITRES

Ingredients

Flour 25 g

Water 2 ltr

Lemon juice 1

Malt Vinegar 25 ml

Salt 20 g

Method

1. Mix the flour and small amount of the water to a smooth paste.

2. Place all the other ingredients into a saucepan and stir in the flour paste. Bring to the boil, stirring occasionally and the simmer for ten minutes to cook the flour.

21. MARINADE (RED MEATS)

1.5 LITRES

Ingredients

Red wine 1 ltr

Onions 150 g

Carrots 150 g

Garlic 2 Cloves

Celery 50 g

Parsley stalks 25 g

Coriander seed 10

Peppercorns (black) 20

Bayleaf 2

Thyme 4 sprigs

Oil 250 ml

Wine vinegar 250

Salt

Method

1. Crush the garlic and slice the vegetables then mix all the ingredients together and use as required.

Note: If the marinade is to be used for white meats substitute white wine for red.

22. PORRIDGE

10 PORTIONS

Ingredients

Rolled oats 200 g

Water 2 ltr

Salt

Method

1. Bring the water to the boil, add salt and stir in the rolled oats.

2. Allow to simmer for 15 minutes.

23. SOCLE (PLINTHS) FOR COLD DISHES

Ingredients

Milk 750 ml

Lamb fat 225 g

Mashed potato powder 150 g

Powdered gelatine 60 g

Cream 60 ml

Method

1. Boil 700 ml of the milk and the lamb fat together.

2. Soak the gelatine in the remaining milk.

3. Remove from the heat and whisk in the gelatine.

4. Reboil, whisk in the potato powder.

5. Reboil then remove from the heat and add the cream.

6. Pour into an oiled mould and allow to set.

7. Remove from the mould and decorate.

24. VEGETABLE GARNISHES SUITABLE FOR COLD DISHES

All such vegetables must be well cooked, seasoned and glazed and be approximately the same size.


  • Swede and turnip cut with a parisienne cutter.
  • Carrots shaped as baby carrots. 
  • Cauliflower in small bouquets.
  • French beans in bundles.
  • Peas placed in artichoke bottoms.
  • Asparagus points made into bundles, decorated with strips of pimento.
  • Tomatoes, blanched, peeled and decorated.
  • Tomatoes, blanched, peeled, cut in half, seeds removed and filled with cooked peas or vegetable salad, set in aspic.
  • Cucumber boats filled with shrimp butter, garnished with small peeled shrimps.
  • Vegetable salad set in aspic.