The Art of the Bases and Preparations

BATTERS

1. Baking Powder

2. Egg white

3. Pancake

4. Yeast

FILLINGS

5. Almond

6. Butter cream (cold)

7. Butter cream (hot)

8. Fruit puree

9. Pastry cream

10. Whipped cream (chantilly)

GLAZES

11. Apricot

12. Arrowroot

13. Bun

14. Cornflour

15. Gum arabic glaze

ICINGS

16. Almond paste

17. Pastillage

18. Petal paste

19. Petal paste (using a mixer)

20. Rolled on paste

21. Royal icing

22. Water icing

23. Fondant icing

JELLIES

24. Lemon

25. Fruit

26. Wine

MERINGUE

27. Basic

28. Italian

PASTE

29. Choux

30. Flaky (rough)

31. Flan

32. Hot water

33. Puff

34. Raised pie

35. Short

36. Suet

37. Sweet

SPONGE

38. Genoese

UNCLASSIFIED

39. Ganache

40. Praline

41. Stock syrup

42. Savarin syrup

Pastry Preparations

BATTERS

1. BAKING POWDER BATTER

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     500 g

Water                                                                    625 ml

Salt pinch

Baking Powder                                                     15 g

Yellow colouring

Method

1. Sieve the flour salt and baking powder together in a basin.

2. Make a bay, add half of the liquid and mix thoroughly.

3. Gradually add the remainder of the liquid and adjust the colour if required.

2. EGG WHITE BATTER

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     400 g

Water                                                                    625 ml

Oil                                                                         30 ml

Salt pinch

Eggs                                                                       2

Method

1. Sieve the flour and salt together into a basin.

2. Make a bay, add half the water and mix thoroughly. Gradually add the remainder of the water and oil.

3. Allow to stand for 15 minutes.

4. Separate the egg whites from the yolks and immediately prior to using the egg whites whist them to a stiff peak and fold into the batter.

3. PANCAKE BATTER

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Eggs                                                                        2

Flour                                                                     325 g

Milk                                                                      700 ml

Sugar                                                                     15 g

Salt pinch

Yellow colouring

Method

1. Sieve the flour and salt together into a basin, make a bay and place the sugar in the centre.

2. Break the eggs into the bay, add half the milk and mix to a smooth batter.

3. Gradually add the remainder of the milk and adjust the colour if required.

4. Allow to stand for 15 minutes before using.

4. YEAST BATTER

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     600 g

Yeast                                                                      20 g

Sugar                                                                     25 g

Milk                                                                      650 ml

Salt

Yellow colouring

Method

1. Sieve the flour and salt together into a basin.

2. Mix the yeast and sugar together, add the milk warmed to 32°C.

3. Allow to stand for 15 minutes then mix together with the flour and salt.

4. Use in the fully fermented bubbly condition.

FILLINGS

5. ALMOND FILLING

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Ground almonds                                                   300 g

Flour                                                                         75 g

Eggs                                                                            6

Margarine                                                              300 g

Castor sugar                                                          300 g

Almond essence

Method

1. Sieve the almonds and flour together and put aside.

2. Break the eggs into a basin and whisk lightly.

3. Cream together the margarine and sugar.

4. Add the eggs to the margarine and sugar.

5. Blend in the sifted flour and almonds. Mix to a smooth texture.

6. Add almond essence.

6. BUTTER CREAM - COLD

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Icing sugar                                                            450 g

Butter                                                                     450 g

Evaporated milk                                                  125 ml

Essence

Yellow colouring

Method

1. Sieve the icing sugar.

2. Lightly cream the butter then gradually add the sugar beating vigorously.

3. Add the milk, colouring if required, and the essence. The butter cream should have a light texture.

7. BUTTER CREAM - HOT

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Eggs 10

Vanilla syrup (30°C)                                             300 ml

Butter                                                                      600 g

Essence

Method

1. Separate the yolks from the whites.

2. Place the yolks and syrup in a bowl. Stand the bowl over a saucepan half full of hot water and heat the mixture over a low heat until it ribbons.

3. Remove from the heat and beat until cold then add the butter gradually beating vigorously.

4. Add the essence.

Note: The vanilla syrup is made of sugar and water. The density of the syrup is determined by the ratio of sugar to water. To produce sufficient for the recipe boil together 200 g sugar to 150 ml water.

8. FRUIT PUREE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Fruit                                                                      900 g

Sugar                                                                     125 g

Water

Method

1. Prepare the fruit and sugar in a saucepan with the water and cook over a low heat until soft.

3. Pass through a sieve.

Notes:

1. The consistency of the puree depends on the liquid content of the fruit therefore it is advisable to keep the amount of water to a minimum when cooking.

2. A nylon sieve should be used; wire sieves can impart a metallic taste to the puree.

3. Fruit such as apples discolour if left exposed to the air. As these are peeled they should be placed in salted water and then immediately prior to cooking rinsed free of salt. Lemon juice may be added to preserve colour and impart flavour.

9. PASTRY CREAM

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Milk                                                                      650 ml

Flour                                                                      60 g

Sugar                                                                     200 g

Eggs                                                                          7

Vanilla essence

Method

1. Separate the egg yolks from the whites.

2. Mix the yolks, sugar and essence in a basin with 60 ml of milk.

3. Add the flour and mix all the ingredients together.

4. Boil the remainder of the milk and stir into the mixture.

5. Return to the saucepan and bring to the boil, stirring constantly.

6. Allow to cool and use as required.

10. WHIPPED CREAM

50 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Double cream                                                        500 ml

Caster sugar                                                            25 g

Vanilla essence

Method

1. Place the cream, sugar and vanilla essence into a bowl.

2. Whisk, until the cream thickens and stands in soft peaks.

3. For a thicker consistency, whisk until the mixture stands in stiff peaks.

4. Use as an accompaniment or filling.

Note: If the cream is whisked too much it will separate and turn to butter.

GLAZES

11. APRICOT GLAZE

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Apricot jam                                                           900 g

Sugar                                                                      125 g

Method

1. Place the jam and sugar in a saucepan. Bring to the boil stirring continuously.

2. Pass through a fine strainer and reboil.

Note: This glaze must be used at boiling point.

12. ARROWROOT GLAZE

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Fruit syrup                           1 ltr

Arrowroot                             25 g

Colour

Sugar

Method

1. Dilute the arrowroot in a little of the fruit syrup.

2. Bring the remainder of the syrup to the boil.

3. Add the arrowroot and bring back to the boil; simmer until clear.

4. Sweeten and colour as required.

13. BUN

500 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Water                                                                     275 ml

Sugar                                                                     225 g

Method

1. Bring the water and sugar to the boil.

2. Remove the scum and brush with the glaze lightly over the finished product while it is still hot.

14. CORNFLOUR GLAZE

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Fruit syrup                                                            1 ltr

Cornflour                                                              25 g

Colour

Sugar

Method

1. Dilute the cornflour with a little of the syrup.

2. Bring the remainder of the syrup to the boil.

3. Add the cornflour, bring back to the boil and simmer for 1 minute.

4. Sweeten and colour as required.

Note: Cornflour produces an opaque product so this glaze should be used sparingly.

15. GUM ARABIC GLAZE

Ingredients

Gum arabic (acacia powder)                                  25 g

Sugar                                                                         250 g

Water                                                                        125 ml

Method

1. Put the water into a heatproof bowl and sprinkle the gum arabic on top.

2. Place the bowl into a saucepan of warm water and heat gently until the gum arabic solution has dissolved.

3. Strain the arabic solution through a fine sieve into a container. The solution is now ready for use.

Notes:

1. All equipment used in making gum arabic solution should first be sterilised to remove any traces of oil or dust.

2. Gum arabic solution can be used for painting on petals or calyx of sugar flowers instead of egg white. It may be mixed with concentrated liquid colourings when painting leaves and will give more body to the colour being used.

3. Rose or orange water may be used in place of plain water.

ICINGS

16. ALMOND PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Ground almonds                                                   500 g

Icing sugar                                                             500 g

Eggs                                                                            3

Method

1. Separate the yolks from the whites.

2. Sieve together the almonds and sugar.

3. Make a bay, add the yolks and mix together to form a stiff paste.

17. PASTILLAGE

400 GRAMS

Ingredients

Icing or confectioners sugar                                  400 g

Gum tragacanth                                                        10 g

Egg                                                                                  1

Lemon juice or acetic acid 20 ml

Method

1. Sieve together the icing sugar and gum tragacanth.

2. Separate the white of the egg from the yolk and whisk the white in a bowl until frothy.

3. Stir in the icing sugar a little at a time beating vigorously and then add the lemon juice.

4. Store in an airtight polythene bag in a refrigerator until required for use.

Notes:

1. Rolled On or Sugar Paste

Rolled on paste or sugar paste is used for covering cakes. It is so called because it can be rolled out and moulded over the cake. It is also sometimes known as fondant icing but should not be confused with the pouring fondant or decorating icing used for small cakes and fancy pastries. Sugar paste can be bought in ready to use blocks but is quite straight forward to make.

2. Flower or Petal Paste

Flowers are made using flower (petal) or moulding paste. This sweet paste is similar to sugar paste but slightly firmer in texture and is easier to mould. Two different recipes are given for flower or petal paste, which one is used is a matter of personal choice. Alternatively, flower or petal paste can be purchased ready to use.

18. FLOWER OR PETAL PASTE

500 GRAMS

Ingredients

Icing or confectioners sugar                                  500 g

Powdered gelatine                                                    10 g

Water                                                                         60 ml

Liquid glucose                                                          15 ml

Method

1. Sieve the icing or confectioners sugar into a bowl.

2. Put the water in a small heat proof bowl, sprinkle in the gelatine and leave it to soften for 3 minutes.

3. Stand the bowl in a saucepan of hot water and apply gentle heat, stir, until all the gelatine is dissolved.

4. Add the glucose. The liquid should be quite clear before adding it to the icing or confectioners sugar.

5. Make a bay in the centre of the sugar and stir in the gelatine mixture with a spatula to make a firm paste.

6. Put the paste in an airtight container and store in a refrigerator.

7. Leave to stand at room temperature for 4 hours before use.

19. FLOWER OR PETAL PASTE (USING A MIXER)

500 GRAMS

Ingredients

Icing or confectioners sugar                                  500 g

Gum tragacanth                                                         15 g

Powdered gelatine                                                     10 g

Water                                                                           25 ml

Liquid glucose                                                             10 g

White vegetable fat or soya oil                                  10 g

Egg                                                                                   1

Method

1. Sieve the icing or confectioners sugar into a bowl and mix in the gum tragacanth. Warm in the oven over a pan of hot water.

2. Separate the yolk from the white. Discard the yolk.

3. Put all the other ingredients, except the egg white into a bowl over a pan of hot water and heat until liquid.

4. Remove the sugar from the oven and pour the liquid into the warm sugar.

5. Warm the mixer beater. Transfer the sugar mixture to the bowl.

6. With the mixer on its lowest speed pour in the egg white and beat the mixture until it begins to cool; as it thickens it will come away from the side of the bowl in strings.

7. Store the paste in an airtight polythene bag in a refrigerator. Leave for 24 hours before using.

20. ROLLED ON PASTE (SUGARPASTE)

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Icing or Confectioners Sugar                                 900 g

Powdered Gelatine                                                    25 g

Glycerine                                                                   15 ml

Liquid Glucose                                                          15 ml

Water                                                                         50 ml

Food colouring (optional)

Clear alcohol for brushing (Gin, Barcardi, Vodka)

FOR DUSTING

Cornflour                                                                  100 g

Icing or confectioners sugar                                  100 g

Method

1. Put the water in a small heat proof bowl, sprinkle in the gelatine and leave to soften for 3 minutes.

2. Stand the bowl in a saucepan of hot water and heat gently, stirring until all the gelatine is dissolved.

3. Add the glycerine and glucose.

4. Sieve the icing or confectioners sugar into a bowl. Make a bay in the centre of the sugar and pour in the gelatine mixture. Mix together then knead until the paste is soft.

5. If using food colouring add at this stage.

6. If applying to a marzipanned cake, brush the marzipan with a clear alcohol.

7. Sieve some icing or confectioners sugar onto a work surface and roll out the sugarpaste. Cover the cake in the same manner as for marzipan.

8. When the sugarpaste is formed over the cake, dust the hands with cornflour and rotate the palm of the hand on the top of the cake to smooth the paste and expel any air.

9. Gently smooth the sides to shape of the cake.

10. Trim the paste at the base of the cake, remove any creases, tiny holes or blemishes.

21. ROYAL ICING

400 GRAMS

Ingredients

Icing or confectioners sugar                                 400 g

Lemon juice or acetic acid                                     40 ml

Eggs                                                                                2

Method

1. Separate the yolks of the egg from the whites and put the egg whites into a bowl.

2. Lightly whisk the egg whites to a froth then gradually add the sugar beating vigorously.

3. Add the lemon juice and beat until the icing forms soft peaks. Cover with a damp cloth and leave for 2 hours.

22. WATER ICING

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Icing sugar                                                            1 kg

Water                                                                    150 ml

Essence and colouring

Method

1. Sieve the icing sugar and heat the water to boiling point.

2. Remove from the heat and whisk in the icing sugar to form a smooth icing.

3. Colour and flavour as required.

23. FONDANT ICING

Ingredients

Sugar                                                                    800 g

Glucose                                                                100 g

Water                                                                    250 ml

Method

1. Put the sugar and water into a saucepan and bring to the boil.

2. Remove the scum from the surface, add the glucose and cook to a soft ball texture, 120°C.

3. Remove from the stove and pour onto a wet marble or stainless steel surface. Allow to cool.

4. Stir the mixture with a spatula until it becomes white and set. Cover with a damp cloth.

5. After 15 mins rework the mixture until it becomes soft and smooth. Store it in a sealed glass container until required.

6. To reheat: place it in a pan and warm to blood heat in a bath of water.

7. Adjust the consistency with a little stock syrup. Colour and flavour as desired.

FONDANT

1. Fondant is made by agitating a sugar solution which has been boiled to 115°C. This action creates millions of tiny sugar crystals which thicken the syrup crystals to form an icing which is brilliant white, caused by the light reflecting properties of the crystals. The smaller the crystals are the more light is reflected which in turn gives the fondant a greater shine or gloss. Fondant may be made by hand but the end product is never as white, smooth or glossy as the commercially produced item.

2. Fondant icing should be set with a pleasant gloss or shine and to bring it to the correct condition for coating requires great care and attention. To achieve this it is important that at no stage should the fondant be overheated. Overheating will cause the tiny crystals to grow in size and so reduce the light reflecting properties which, in turn, will give a dull appearance to the finished product. For best results the following points should be considered.

a. Always use fondant icing when it is at its freshest.

b. Break the icing into small pieces for warming.

c. Apply gentle heat only, not above 38°C or the gloss will be lost.

d. Adding a little stock syrup at 38°C will bring the icing to the required consistency, help preserve the shine and increase the yield of the icing.

e. The consistency required depends upon the eventual use, the warmer the icing the thinner the consistency the cooler the icing the thicker the consistency. As a guide, the larger the area to be covered the thicker the icing needs to be.

f. The area of the cake or sponge to be covered must be prepared or sealed with boiling apricot glaze or coated in another medium such as marzipan. Unless this preparation is done the moisture content in the icing will be drawn into the surface of the cake or sponge and this will result in loss of gloss or shine.

3. A number of ingredients may be added to fondant icing to improve its flavour, give it a range of different colours and also improve its gloss.

4. To improve the flavour the following may be added:

a. Unsweetened chocolate couverture. This is melted and added up to 165 g per kg. Additional chocolate food colouring may be necessary to darken the icing.

b. Instant coffee up to 15 g per 500 g.

c. Fruit juice extracts, essences, essential oils, fruit concentrates, combiennes (combined colours and flavours), coffee and chocolate concentrates. Fruit juice may be used in place of stock syrup to adjust the icing sugar at the initial preparation stage to achieve a particular good product.

d. Evaporated milk added in place of stock syrup will impart a creamy consistency and taste.

5. To improve the gloss of the icing the following may be added:

a. Gelatine, up to 70 g per kg of icing.

b. Egg white, up to 70 g per kg of icing.

c. Piping jelly, up to 140 g per kg of icing.

The addition of these items will affect the consistency and this must be taken into account when stock syrup is added.

JELLIES

24. LEMON JELLY

1.5 LITRES

Ingredients

Water                                                                    1.5 ltr

Sugar                                                                    250 g

Gelatine                                                                110 g

Lemons                                                                   3

Cinnamon stick                                                  3 cm

Coriander seeds                                                    6

Eggs                                                                         3

Method

1. Separate the egg whites from the yolks.

2. Cut the lemons into halves and place these and the other ingredients into a saucepan.

3. Bring slowly to the boil, stirring frequently.

4. Remove from the heat, cover the saucepan with a lid and allow the mixture to infuse for 20 mins.

5. Strain through a jelly bag and use as required.

Note: For orange jelly; reduce the lemons to one and add 2 oranges, proceed as for lemon jelly.

25. FRUIT JELLY

1 LITRE

Ingredients

                                                         Heavy                        Light

Lemon jelly                                 750 ml                     375 ml

Fruit puree                                  375 ml                     250 ml

Method

1. Prepare the lemon jelly and allow it to cool but not set.

2. Prepare the fruit puree and allow it to cool.

3. Combine the jelly and the puree then place into a suitable mould or glass to set.

26. WINE JELLY

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Sugar                                                                    300 g

Gelatine                                                                50 g

White wine or Ruby                                         150 ml

Lemons                                                                  2

Eggs                                                                        2

Water                                                                  750 ml

Method

1. Squeeze the juice from both the lemons, grate the zest from 1½.

2. Warm the water in a saucepan and dissolve the gelatine in it. Add the sugar, lemon juice and zest, bring to the boil, remove from the heat and cover. Allow to infuse for 10 mins.

3. Separate the egg whites from the yolks.

4. Place the egg whites and wine together and whisk to a froth, whisk in the hot syrup.

5. Stir over the heat until the egg whites form a crust on the jelly, then simmer gently without stirring.

6. Cover again, remove from the heat and stand for a further 10 mins.

7. Strain through a jelly bag and use as required.

Notes:

1. If the first straining process fails to totally clear the jelly carry out the procedure a second time using a clean bag.

2. Soft fruits such as raspberries, redcurrants, strawberries, and blackberries are particularly suitable for making this jelly as they provide a rich flavour and colour.

3. For an even richer and full bodied product, champagne, rich dessert wine, Madeira, Port or Marsala can be added at the ratio of 75 ml per 250 ml of cold prepared jelly.

MERINGUE

27. BASIC MERINGUE

800 GRAMS

Ingredients

Caster sugar                                                          400 g

Eggs                                                                           8

Lemon                                                                       1

Method

1. Separate the egg whites from the yolks, discard the yolks.

2. Place the whites into a bowl and whisk to a stiff peak.

3. Add a little lemon juice then gradually incorporate half the sugar until the meringue becomes full bodied and firm.

4. Carefully fold in the remainder of the sugar; use as required.

Notes:

1. Always use fresh eggs: stale eggs have a high degree of water in the whites and will not produce the volume required when whipped.

2. For good results it is important to ensure that all equipment used in the preparation of meringue is clean, dry and grease free.

3. When separating the egg yolks from the white no egg yolk must be allowed to remain in the white. Yolk contains fat and this can prevent the white expanding to the required volume.

4. Egg white should increase in volume seven-fold when whisked. It is high in protein (11%) which contains tiny filaments that stretch when beaten. When egg white is whisked, the protein filaments stretch and incorporate air which, in turn, gives the egg white its stiff, puffed-up appearance.

5. Correct oven temperature and conditions are most important when baking meringue. The lowest temperature possible is used to bake the meringue without colour and to thoroughly dry it out. Too high a temperature will have a two‑fold effect:

a. It will create steam and prevent the meringue from drying out resulting in a distorted product.

b. The sugar content of the meringue may carmelise and turn the product brown. While this may be desired for certain dishes, a pure white finish to meringue is required in the majority of products. Where an oven temperature appears to be too warm, the oven door may be left slightly open during the baking process to help control the oven temperature.

6. Meringue can be piped into any desired shape using a variety of different sized star or plain tubes. Baked meringue should be thoroughly dried out before storage otherwise it will soften. Storage time is limited to about 3 days. Meringue should be made fresh and used as soon as possible.

28. ITALIAN MERINGUE

800 GRAMS

Ingredients

Eggs                                                                            8

Caster Sugar                                                          400 g

Water                                                                       125 ml

Cream of Tartar pinch

Method

1. Separate the egg whites from the yolks, discard the yolks.

2. Place the sugar, water and cream of tartar into a heavy bottomed saucepan. Dissolve the sugar over gentle heat then bring to the boil.

3. Boil the sugar syrup to the soft ball stage 120°C without stirring using a sugar thermometer.

4. Whist the egg whites until fairly stiff then pour the sugar syrup gradually in a threat into the egg whites, whisking constantly until all the syrup is absorbed by the whites.

5. Continue whisking until the mixture is cold then use immediately or store in a container in a refrigerator until required.

Notes:

1. The addition of cream of tartar will help to stop any crystallisation of the sugar which would affect the finished product.

2. As the sugar syrup is added to the egg whites a reduction in volume will occur. Continued whisking to the cold stage will expand the mixture and restore the volume. The mixture should then be quite thick and dense and will peak well, retaining its shape without sagging.

3. For meringue shapes etc, bake in a pre-heated oven 120°C to 130°C for about 1 hour until completely dried out.

4. As a variation to the recipe, cocoa, instant coffee or chopped or ground nuts can be folded into the meringue before baking. Italian meringue can also be mixed with whipped or pastry cream and used as a topping for baked meringues or pastry based sweets.

PASTE

29. CHOUX PASTE

400 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     75 g

Eggs                                                                        3

Water                                                                    125 ml

Margarine                                                             50 g

Method

1. Place the water and margarine into a saucepan and bring to the boil.

2. Add the flour and beat vigorously with a spatula over heat until the mixture leaves the sides of the pan clean.

3. Withdraw from the stove and allow to cool.

4. Mix the eggs together then add to the mixture in the saucepan in small quantities beating until the mixture is smooth.

30. FLAKY PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Flour                                                                400 g

Water                                                               200 ml

Salt pinch

Margarine                                                         400 g

Lemon 1

Method

1. Sieve together the flour and salt.

2. Cut the margarine into 25 mm cubes and mix them thoroughly with the flour without breaking down the cubes.

3. Make a bay, add the water and lemon juice and mix to a medium stiff dough.

4. Press out to an oblong shape 25 mm thick.

5. Cut in half, place one half on top of the other, again press out to 25 mm thickness and repeat this operation between 6 to 8 times.

6. Allow to relax in a cool place for 15 mins before using.

Notes:

1. This type of pastry is used primarily for covering pies and making sausage rolls.

2. It is not suitable for making vol-au-vents or fancy puff pastry goods.

31. FLAN PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Flour                                                   600 g

Caster Sugar                                       30 g

Margarine                                           300 g

Water 60 ml

Method

1. Sieve the flour and then rub in the margarine to a sandy texture.

2. Make a bay in the centre.

3. Place in the water and sugar, dissolve the sugar and mix with the flour and margarine to a smooth paste.

Note: A richer product is obtained by substituting egg for water. Additionally, there is no need for the use of peas, beans, etc, in blind baking, and if wrapped in greaseproof paper and stored in a cool place this paste may be kept for a considerable time.

32. HOT WATER PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Flour                                                   600 g

Lard                                                     150 g

Water                                                  20 ml

Salt                                                         5 g

Method

1. Sieve together the flour and salt and rub in the lard to a sandy texture.

2. Make a bay in the centre, add boiling water and mix thoroughly to form a smooth paste.

3. The paste should be kept hot whilst in use.

33. PUFF PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Flour                                                         400 g

Water                                                       200 ml

Salt                                                             5 mg

Margarine                                                  80 g

Lemon                                                           1

Pastry margarine                                      320 g

Method

1. Sieve together the flour and salt.

2. Rub the ordinary margarine into the flour to a sandy texture.

3. Make a bay, add the water and lemon juice and mix to a smooth paste.

4. Cover the paste with a damp cloth and allow it to relax in a cool place for 15 minutes then roll it out into a rectangle 20 mm thick.

5. Cover two thirds of the paste with an even layer of pastry margarine.

6. Fold the paste into 3 and lightly seal the edges, this is known as a half turn.

7. Roll out to a rectangular shape 20 mm thick and again fold in 3 layers, this makes 2 half turns.

8. Cover with a damp cloth and allow to relax for 15 minutes.

9. The paste must be rolled out and folded a further 4 times to make 6 half turns in all, leaving to rest in a cool place for 15 minutes between each turn.

Note: The best results are obtained when the mixing is carried out in a temperature of between 15°C and 18°C and the paste is kept at this temperature until required for baking.

34. RAISED PIE PASTRY

750 GRAMS

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     400 g

Salt                                                                           5 g

Margarine                                                             200 g

Eggs                                                                           2

Water                                                                     50 ml

Method

1. Sieve together the flour and salt.

2. Rub in the margarine to a sandy texture.

3. Add the eggs and water and mix to a stiff dough.

35. SHORT PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     550 g

Salt                                                                          5 g

Baking powder                                                     10 g

Margarine                                                             275 g

Water                                                                    175 ml

Method

1. Sieve together the flour and salt.

2. Rub in the margarine to a sandy texture.

3. Make a bay and add the water.

4. Mix to a firm paste.

Note: Short paste must not be over-worked or it will become tough.

36. SUET PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     500 g

Baking powder                                                     15 g

Water                                                                    300 ml

Suet                                                                       200 g

Salt                                                                          5 g

Method

1. Sieve together the flour, baking powder and salt and mix in the chopped suet.

2. Make a bay in the centre, add the water and mix to a firm paste.

37. SWEET PASTE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Flour                                                                     600 g

Sugar                                                                      60 g

Margarine                                                             300 g

Eggs                                                                          2

Method

1. Sieve the flour and rub in the margarine to a sandy texture.

2. Make a bay in the centre.

3. Dissolve the sugar in the eggs.

4. Put the sugar and egg mixture into the centre of the bay and mix to a smooth paste.

Notes:

1. Care should be taken not to over mix this paste.

2. This paste is used for flans, tartlets etc.

SPONGE

38. GENOESE SPONGE

500 GRAMS

Ingredients

Margarine                                                             150 g

Eggs                                                                         3

Baking powder                                                      5 g

Caster sugar                                                          150 g

Flour                                                                        175 g

Salt pinch

Method

1. Grease baking sheets then line them with greaseproof paper to a depth of 25 mm.

2. Whisk the eggs lightly together in a basin.

3. Sieve together the flour, baking powder and salt.

4. Cream the margarine and sugar together and add the egg gradually to avoid curdling.

5. Add any essence or colour required.

6. Fold in the flour, baking powder and salt.

7. Spread the mix onto the baking sheets, smooth over the surface with a little milk.

8. Bake in an oven at 190°C for 30 minutes.

9. Remove from the oven and allow to cool in the baking tray.

10. When required for use warm the tray slightly to assist turning out.

UNCLASSIFIED

39. GANACHE

400 GRAMS

Ingredients

Double cream                                                        125 ml

Chocolate                                                               250 g

Butter                                                                       25 g

Method

1. Grate the chocolate. Melt the butter. Add the butter to the cream, bring to the boil, then add the grated chocolate.

2. Remove from the heat and stir until the chocolate has dissolved, allow to cool.

3. When cool, whisk until the mixture is completely smooth.

Notes:

1. Boiling the cream will eliminate any acid taste present. Use the freshest cream possible to maximise the storage time of the ganache.

2. Ganache may be flavoured with the addition of spirits, liqueurs, flavourings and essences. When using flavouring such as coffee it should be added to the cream and whisked in before adding to the chocolate. If using liqueur it should be added after whisking the ganache.

3. The ganache is ready to be whisked once it has cooled. The test for this is to stir it with a whisk and hold the whisk up. If the ganache sticks and does not run off, it is ready.

4. The consistency can be varied by altering the ratio of cream or chocolate. For a thinner mixture, increase the cream, for a thicker mixture increase the chocolate.

5. The texture can be further varied according to the type of chocolate used, a chocolate with a high cocoa butter content will produce a firmer texture.

6. Different coloured chocolate may be used: plain chocolate will produce a brown ganache, milk chocolate will produce blonde ganache and white chocolate white ganache.

7. Storage: in a refrigerator at 5°C for about 1 week. Ganache can be frozen but will loose volume on defrosting and is never as good as the fresh product.

Uses: Ganache may be used if 4 different ways:

1. Used hot, it can be poured over a sponge (or similar base) rather like fondant when it will set into a thin, soft textured coating.

2. When refrigerated, ganache will set to a firm paste which may be moulded into chocolate centres or sweets.

3. Whisking ganache when slightly warmed will produce a light cream which may be piped into a variety of patterns, rather like butter cream.

4. It may be used on its own as a filling or mixed with other ingredients or filling mediums.

40. PRALINE

1 KILOGRAM

Ingredients

Almonds                                                               200 g

Hazelnuts                                                              200 g

Sugar                                                                      800 g

Water                                                                     250 ml

Lemon                                                                       1

Glucose                                                                    150 g

Method

1. Blanch and skin the almonds.

2. Roast and skin the hazelnuts, chop them with the almonds.

3. Cook together the sugar and water, the glucose and the juice of the lemon to a golden brown colour.

4. Add the nuts and pour the mixture onto a marble slab or stainless steel table top.

5. Allow to cool, remove from the slab or table top and crush with a rolling pin.

Note:

Fine praline is required for certain dishes and this can be obtained by further crushing and then shaking through a sieve.

41. STOCK SYRUP

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Sugar                                                                    1 ltr

Water                                                                    800 g

Method

1. Boil the sugar with the water, removing any scum that may form.

2. Cool and store in polythene containers until required.

Note:

Used for glazing certain baked goods or, diluted for stewing fruit.

42. SAVARIN SYRUP

800 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Sugar                                                                    300 g

Lemon                                                                    1

Orange                                                                    1

Water                                                                    500 ml

Coriander seeds                                                    6

Cinnamon stick                                                   25 ml

Method

1. Remove the zest of orange and lemon with a peeler, squeeze the juice from the fruit.

2. Place the water, sugar, zest and juice of the fruit and spice into a saucepan and bring to the boil. Allow to infuse for 15 minutes.

3. Drain and reheat ready for use.

Notes:

1. The recipe should be sufficient to soak 2 savarines or 30 babas or marignons.

2. For RUM savarin syrup, for use with rum babas, add 30 ml of rum or a few drops of rum essence after the syrup has been drained.