Introduction Stocks & Sauces

1.The basic ingredients for most soups and sauces is a good stock, and this is one reason why a stockpot should always be maintained in a kitchen. Stock is obtained by simmering bones and selected vegetables in water, thereby extracting their nutriment nutrients and flavour. The preparation of the basic type of stock is a straightforward process, and although weights and measures are given in the receipts recipes which follow, such quantities should be regarded as flexible, permitting variation within fairly broad limits.

2. Fat which derives from skimming is a useful by-product. It should be retained and clarified for first grade dripping. Bones which have been boiled for more than six hours are of no further value and should be disposed of discarded. It is important to note that any stock remaining at the end of the day should be reboiled and then stored in a cool place.

INTRODUCTION Thickening agents 

1. Thickening agents are divided into roux and liaisons.


2. There are 2 types of roux:

a. Uncooked - Beurre Manie

b. Cooked - white, blond and brown.

3. Beurre Manie is an uncooked roux; a mixture of butter and flour kneaded together and added to boiling liquid to thicken it just prior to serving.

4. A cooked roux is a combination of fat, oil, butter or margarine and flour cooked together. It is used in the making of sauces and soups. Care must be taken during the cooking process to ensure that the flour does not burn. If the roux burns it will impart a bitter taste and discolour the sauce. A roux must be allowed to cool before any liquid is added.


5. The required thickening of the basic liquid by a liaison is obtained by the addition of uncooked starches, yolks of egg, cream and blood.

6. The 2 main sources of starch for thickening are grains eg corn or roots eg arrowroot, potato and cassava.