INTRODUCTION Hors d'oeuvre 

1. Hors d'oeuvre may be made from a wide variety of fish, meats or marinaded vegetables and salad items. Almost all foodstuffs can be utilised in making hors d'oeuvres, but each item should be seasoned and flavoured according to its nature. The aim is to serve a minimum of six varieties, all of which have contrasting flavours and colours and are stimulating to the palate. Hors d'oeuvres are served as a first course, normally at a lunch meal. The more expensive categories of food such as smoked salmon, caviare, melon, oysters, smoked ham, may be included as part of the hors d'oeuvres or may be served on their own in place of hors d'oeuvres at either lunch or dinner. Presentation is an all important factor second only to the flavour in the making of hors d'oeuvres.

2. Whilst a neat and clean appearance is necessary, it is a mistake to over decorate. Hors d'oeuvre should be served sparingly to stimulate the appetite rather than to satisfy hunger. A simple set of hors d'oeuvres might consist of the following:

a. Egg Mayonnaise.

b. Tomato Salad.

c. Sardines or Anchovies

d. Cooked Vegetable Salad.

e. Potato Salad.

f. Fish Salad or Mayonnaise.

g. Raw Vegetable Salad, endive, pimento, celery, etc.

h. Meat Salad, beef, salami, liver pate etc.


1. Soups have traditionally been served as the first course at lunch or dinner meals but are increasingly offered as a main course, or indeed the only course in the lighter types of meal favoured by the diet conscious. The majority are served hot but many types are suitable for cold service. Well made an highly nutritious soups can be produced economically using the less expensive food items available in abundance in the kitchen and they are also particularly useful to the budget conscious chef, when considering how to use left over foods.

2. They are excellent when used for feeding people who are ill or recovering from an illness and because of their high liquid content they are easily maintained in first class condition for hot or cold service whether in static or field location.

3. A good quality stock is an essential requirement in the manufacture of a tasty soup but care should be taken not to impart too distinctive a flavour in such stocks as they may subsequently be used in soups which require their own particular flavour. A variety of garnishes for soups are served separately and are not cooked in the soups eg sippets, grated cheese, croutons, cheese straws, melba toast, etc.

4. Soups in this chapter are listed in the following categories:

BROTH: Prepared vegetables cooked in a stock with meat, rice or pulses as garnish. Not sieved and always served hot.

Example: Scotch Broth.

CONSOMME: Clear soup served either hot or jellied cold prepared from clarified beef, poultry, fish or game stock. Served with an appropriate garnish.

Example: Consomme Julienne.

CREAM: A puree of vegetables, chicken or shellfish sometimes with the addition of white sauce. Always finished with cream or a liaison of egg yolks and cream.

Example: Cream of Tomato Soup.

PUREE: Puree of vegetables or pulse. Thickened by its own ingredients which can be kept in suspension by the addition of a small amount of starch eg flour, cornflour, sago etc. The consistency should be similar to that of single cream.

Example: Lentil Soup.


Example: French Onion Soup.