Stocks and Glazes

PART 2 - KITCHEN CHAPTER ONE

Stocks and Glazes


                                                          1. Brown

                                                         2. Chicken 

                                                         3. Court bouillon

                                                         4. Fish

                                                         5. Game

                                                         6. Veal (brown)

                                                         7. Veal (white)

                                                         8. White

                                                         9. Fish 

                                                        10. Meat 

INTRODUCTION

1. The basic ingredients for most soups and sauces is a good stock, and this is one reason why a stockpot should always be maintained in a kitchen. Stock is obtained by simmering bones and selected vegetables in water, thereby extracting their nutriment nutrients and flavour. The preparation of the basic type of stock is a straightforward process, and although weights and measures are given in the receipts recipes which follow, such quantities should be regarded as flexible, permitting variation within fairly broad limits.

2. Fat which derives from skimming is a useful by-product. It should be retained and clarified for first grade dripping. Bones which have been boiled for more than six hours are of no further value and should be disposed of discarded. It is important to note that any stock remaining at the end of the day should be reboiled and then stored in a cool place.

1. BROWN STOCK

3 LITRES

Ingredients

Beef Bones                                                          2 kg

Water                                                                    5 ltr

Carrots                                                                 100 g

Onions                                                                 100 g

Leeks                                                                    50 g

Celery                                                                   50 g

Bouquet garni                                                      1 small

Peppercorns (black)                                             10

Oil                                                                        25 g

Method

1. Saw the bones into 10cm lengths and brown in a hot oven.

2. Place them in a saucepan and cover with the water.

3. Bring to the boil and ski,m, simmer for 2 hours.

4. Cut the carrots and onions into large dice, brown them in a frying pan and add top the stock..

5. Add the remainder of the ingredients and simmer for a further 4 hours.

6. Skim, strain and use as required.

Note: Points to note when making stock should be read in conjunction with this recipe.

2. CHICKEN STOCK

3 LITRES

Ingredients

Boiling fowl or chicken carcass                           2 kg

Water                                                                        5 ltr

Salt                                                                            10 g

Leeks                                                                        50 g

Onions (studded with cloves)                              100 g

Carrots                                                                    100 g

Bouquet garni                                                      1 small

Peppercorns (white)                                             6

Method

1. Clean, singe, wash and truss the fowl.

2. Place the boiling fowl or chicken carcasses into a suitable saucepan and add the water.

3. Add the salt and bring to the boil.

4. Skim and wipe the sides of the pan.

5. Add the vegetables, left whole, bouquet garni and peppercorns and allow to simmer for 2 hours or until the fowl is cooked.

6. Remove the scum, skim and pass the stock through a fine strainer or muslin.

Notes:

1. The cooked fowl is reserved for the preparation of other dishes such as vol-au-vent, creamed chicken or minced chicken etc.

2. Salt is added to this stock to flavour the chicken especially when using whole birds, otherwise the meat has a tendency to be bland.

6. VEAL STOCK

3 LITRES

Ingredients

Veal bones                                                           2 kg

Water                                                                    5 ltr

Carrots                                                                 100 g

Onions                                                                  100 g

Leek                                                                       50 g

Celery                                                                    50 g

Bouquet garni                                                      1 small

Peppercorns (black)                                             10

Oil                                                                           25 g

Method

1. Saw the bones into 10 cm lengths and brown in a hot oven.

2. Place them in a saucepan and cover with the water.

3. Bring to the boil and skim, simmer for 2 hours.

4. Peel the carrots and onions and cut them into large dice. Brown them in a frying pan and add to the stock..

5. Add the remainder of the ingredients and simmer for a further 4 hours.

6. Skim, strain and use as required.

7. VEAL STOCK

3 LITRES

Ingredients

Veal bones                                                              2 kg

Water                                                                       5 ltr

Onion (studded with cloves)                                100 g

Carrots                                                                    100 g

Leeks                                                                        50 g

Celery                                                                      50 g

Bouquet garni                                                      1 small

Method

1. Saw the bones into 10 cm lengths and place them in a saucepan.

2. Cover with cold water, bring to the boil, skim. Simmer for 4 hours.

3. Add the peeled whole vegetables and bouquet garni and allow to simmer for a further 2 hours.

4. Skim, strain and use as required.

POINTS TO NOTE WHEN MAKING STOCK

1. Scum which rises when a stock first boils must be skimmed off.

2. Fat rising during the cooking process must be skimmed from time to time. This fat may be clarified and preserved for further use.

3. Stock should simmer and not be allowed to boil rapidly.

4. Stock remaining at the end of the day must be reboiled and placed in a cool place where air may freely circulate around it.

5. The crust which forms on the sides of the stockpot as a result of a reduction by evaporation should be removed from time to time.

6. Stock which has been stored over-night must be reboiled and checked before further use.

3. COURT BOUILLON

5 LITRES

Ingredients

Water                                                                    5 ltr

Vinegar                                                                250 ml

Salt                                                                       50 g

Peppercorns                                                         10

Onions                                                                 400 g

Carrots                                                                 300 g

Bouquet garni                                                      1 small

Method

1. Place all ingredients into a suitable saucepan.

2. Bring to the boil, simmer for one hour.

3. Strain and use as required.

Note: Court bouillon is suitable for cooking trout, salmon and shellfish.

4. FISH STOCK

1 LITRE

Ingredients

Fish bones (sole, plaice, whiting, turbot)                 1 kg

Water                                                                              1.5 ltr

Onions                                                                            150 g

Margarine                                                                       5 g

Peppercorns (white)                                                      10

Bouquet garni                                                                 1

Juice of lemon                                                                 1

Method

1. Peel and shred the onions.

2. Place the margarine, onions and fish bones in a saucepan cover with a lid and cook until the essence has been extracted for 5 minutes.

3. Add the remaining ingredients and bring to the boil, skim and simmer for 20 minutes. Strain through fine strainer or muslin. Reboil and cool.

5. GAME STOCK

3 LITRES

Ingredients

Game bones                                                         2 kg

Water                                                                    5 ltr

Carrots                                                                 100 g

Onions                                                                  100 g

Leeks                                                                     100 g

Celery                                                                    50 g

Salt                                                                         25 g

Peppercorns (black)                                              6

Bouquet garni                                                        1

Oil                                                                          25 g

Method

1. Partly roast the game bones.

2. Peel the carrots and onions and cut them into large dice. Brown them in a frying pan.

3. Place all the ingredients into a saucepan, bring to the boil, skim and simmer for 3 hours.

4. Skim, strain and use as required.

8. WHITE STOCK

3 LITRES

Ingredients

Beef bones                                                               2 kg

Water                                                                        5 ltr

Onion (studded with cloves)                                100 g

Carrots                                                                     100 g

Leeks                                                                         50 g

Celery                                                                       50 g

Bouquet garni                                                      1 small

Method

1. Saw the bones into 10 cm lengths and place them in a saucepan.

2. Cover with cold water, bring to the boil, skim and simmer for 4 hours.

3. Add the peeled whole vegetables and bouquet garni and allow to simmer for a further 2 hours.

4. Skim, strain and use as required.

GLAZES

9. FISH GLAZE

250 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Fish stock                                                                 1 ltr

Method

1. Reduce the fish stock by boiling until it coats the back of a spoon.

2. Allow to cool.

3. Store in the refrigerator and use as required.

10. MEAT GLAZE

250 MILLILITRES

Ingredients

Brown stock                                                         1 ltr

Method

1. Reduce the brown stock by boiling until it coats the back of a spoon.

2. Allow to cool.

3. Store in the refrigerator and use as required.